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 Post subject: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#1  PostPosted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 4:53 am 
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According to some scholars, the IIlyrians belong to a group of Indo-Europian tribes who came from the north to settle in the Balkans towards the end of the second millennium BC. According to the German archaeologist, Gustav Kossina, whose theories are the most well known, the Illyrians were an ethinic group founded in Lusatia, an area in western Poland. Eventually, carrying with them the Lusatian civilization from the fields of urns, they made for the south.But this theory was only assumed because of the simple resemblance between the Lusatian civilisation and the Pannonian civilisation of Hungary.

Now in the true Illyrian areas, there are no archaeological remains proving the presence of Lusatian civilization. Some scholars who have studied the Lusatian civilization have even reached the conclusion that they were Slav origin, while others consider that their origin were Germanic.

A new approach to the Illyrian problem was made possible by recent excavations in the prehistoric of Illyrian centres in Albania. The objects discovered in the necropolis of tumuli at Vajza (in the Vlore region) in south Albania dating from the end of the second millennium and from the beginning of the first millennium BC give us proof of a continuity between the civilisation of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Since the bearers of the Vajza civilisation were Illyrians themselves, the hypothesis that the latter equally created the Bronze civilisation has gained more and more consistency. It has been confirmed by relics discovered in the tumuli in the plain Pazhok (Elbasan, central Albania) were the findings date partly from 1900-1700 BC and partly from 1400 BC.The important fact is we are now talking about indigenous Illyrian population.

The typical local ceramics which, in may ways, maintain the traditions of the Aeneolithic ceramics support this thesis. New evidence in favour of the essentially Illyrians character of the Bronze Age civilization is provided by the archaeological remains found in Maliq and Tren. The relics concerned consist of vase dating from the Copper Age which increase in number during Bronze Age. The shapes of these painted vases and the geometric motifs which one finds later on metallic objects are typically Illyrian character.

We are led to believe from all this that the bearers of the Aeneolithic civilization continued to populate the Maliq and Tren sites during the Bronze Age. This was the population which was later to form the Illyrian Group. It seems, therefore, that Illyrians are indigenous in this area. The theory of the indigenous nature of Illyrians in Balkan has equally been confirmed by the discoveries made in the formerly Illyrians areas of Zocov and Ptuj in Yugoslavia.

As for the Pelasgi, whom some ancient writers quote as being the very ancient inhabitants of the southern Balkans and whom some modern scholars have consisted as the distant ancestors of Albanians, no serious data have been collected up to now establishing a link between them and the Illyrians, and the Albanians, their descendants. The Illyrians are one of the most numerous of ancient Europe, occupied the western part of Balkan peninsula. The territories which they inhabited were bounded on the north by the Sava and the Danube, on the south bye the Gulf of Ambracia and the northern areas of Greece, on the east by the Morava and the Vardar which separated them from Thrace, on the west by the Adriatic and the Ionian seas. Within these boundaries, the northern regions were populated, according to the ancient writings, bye various tribes, the most important of which were the Liburnians, the Iapydi, the Dalmatians, the Daesitiati, and the Ardeates. The main tribes who settled on Albania territory itself were the Labeates, the Dardarians, the Paeonians, the Pirustae, the Parthinians, the Penestae, the Taulanti, the Amantes, the Bullini, the Encheliae, the Dassaretae and the Chaonians. The essarpians and the Iapygians from south-east Italy were also Illyrian tribes.

The earliest written information about the Illyrians can be found in Homer. In the fourteenth book of Iliad, the Paeonians are quoted as horsemen who having come from the their fertile regions under the leadership of Asteroups, took part in the Trojan War. Also according to Homer, Ulysses landed on the fertile coasts of the Thesprotians on his return from Troy, and was welcomed by Phaedon, their generous and heroic king.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#2  PostPosted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 4:55 am 
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The beginning of Illyrian civilization


The first indications of Illyrian civilization go back to the end of the third millennium BC, ceramic articles being the most common. First there are vases with two handles rising higher than the neck. During the Bronze Age, burials gained in solemnity, and the first tumuli appeared, the tombs often embellished with a rich funeral dressing. The popularity of tools, armour and ornaments made of bronze brought certain increase to metallurgy. Nature had a hand in this as the country was fairly rich in minerals. Social differences became accentuated, a wealthy social class and a tribal aristocracy emerged in Illyrian society. On the Maliq site among other discoveries were bronze knifes and a bronze scythe belonging to the Aegean civilization of the sixteenth century BC. We have very cause to believe that these objects, as well as a number of knifes of Mycenaean origin discovered in the tumuli at Pazhok and Vajza, reached southern Illyria via exchanges with Greece.

At the end of the Bronze Age, and especially in the first part of the Iron Age, which is chronological with the first millennium BC, the Illyrians embarked on a new stage of their economic ,social and cultural growth. The ancient cities ,the fortified tribal centers and places of refuge for the surrounding population in case of war, were generally found on the tops of the hills or mountings, or along valleys, or beside roads where they held a dominant position. These cities were to protected by thick walls, constructed with huge, rough or slightly hewn stones. These early fortresses, which varied by their size and according to the shape of the enclosure, had no towers yet and their gates were narrow. The really old fortress of Gaitan (in Shkodra region in northern Albania) is an excellent example.

The funeral trappings discovered in the two burial necropolis at Mati especially and at Kuci i Zi (In the Korce Region) are particularly important for the information they give of Illyrian civilization in the first part of Iron Age.

A large quantity of iron armors has been retrieved-swords, daggers, kandjars, knives. Armor used in self-defense by wealthy soldiers-helmets, daggers, and bronze leg-shields are plentiful. The jewels found in abundance in the woman's tombs are also made of bronze: fibulae, buttons, pendants on chains, bracelets, pins and diadems .The arms and ornaments found in the tombs were made by high-reputed master iron-workers of the Pirustae tribe, who lived in this rich mining region. From the first part of the Iron Age the civilization in southern Illyria had its own physical features, which distinguished it from neighboring civilizations.

Very little in known about the language of Illyrians. We still have not found inscriptions or documents written in this language .There are only a few rare inscription in a Messapian dialect which was spoken in southern Italy. The only evidence of ancient Illyrian are a few names or places or people or a few isolated words ,accompanied by their meaning, reported by Ancient writers. According to linguists, the Illyrian language belonged to the Indo-European group. Illyrian was a language in common use, while Greek and Latin, the latter in particular, were only used as commercial, administrative and epigraphic languages. In certain cases, to complete the Latin alphabet, the Illyrians used their own characters, apparently to reproduce the sounds which were peculiar to their own language.

Illyria was a vast country; so its regions naturally presented various geographic and climatic conditions which determined the development of various sectors of economy activity. In areas rich in minerals, jobs associated with the extraction of treatment of metals grew in number.

The warm, coastal regions, as Strabo wrote, were covered in vineyards and olive groves. The Illyrians from the southern regions were famous animal breeders, and their oxen and sheep were admired even outside Illyria. According to ancient writers Illyrians were characterized by their honesty and hospitality. Among others, Demosthenes, Diodorus of Sicily and Nicolaus of Damas tell us that the Illyrians held nothing dearer than liberty and that they never let their wounded fall into the hands of the enemy-they were ready to sacrifice their lives to defend their friends and those near to them. These authors praised their virtues as soldiers.

Not much is known about Illyrian religion during the first part of the Iron Age.

Like all primitive people, they adored everything which seemed extraordinary in nature, particularly the sun. The symbol of the sun -an empty or solid circle- is often found on pieces of Illyrian craftsmanship. Since the Illyrians had no real sculpture when their race began, and since the functions of a large number of their divinities were very similar to those of the Greek deities, they gave their gods the physiognomy and attributes of the corresponding Greek gods. So the god of the waters and forest -the Thana of the northern Illyrian regions- was linked to the Greek Artemis then later to the Roman Diana.

The same occurred with the main god of Parthinians who figures in effigy form on the bronze coin of Dyrrachium (today Durres) and Shkodra; the Greek colonists gave him the name of Zeus, with whom he shared similar characteristic and functions. But for the Illyrians these divines were the Diana of the Candavia tribe and the Jupiter of the Parthinians, and they should not of course be confused with the Roman Jupiter and Diana. Apart from these similarities, inscriptions have revealed the names of a large number of Illyrian gods. Besides Medaure, god of war, we also find Bonus, god of spring and woods, Latra, Sentona, Vidosa and many others.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#3  PostPosted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 4:58 am 
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The Greek colonies


Greek colonization of the Illyrian coast, with Corinth and Corcyra being the first to take the initiative, started in the seventh century BC. In 627 BC, roughly on the site occupied today by the town of Durres, inhabitants of Corinth and Corcyra founded the colony of Epidamnos and Dyrrachium. A few years later at the beginning of the sixth century BC, other colonists from the same region founded another colony, Apollonia, on a hill, slightly farther south and slightly inland. It was linked to the sea by the river Aoos (the Vjosa of today) which was navigable along its lower stretch. It was from these two centers that Greek civilization penetrated to the interior of the Illyrian region.

A few centuries later, Dyrrachium and Apollonia had become important towns. Encircled by strong walls, and surrounded by agricultural lands, they became poleis -that is to say, city-states. The city wall of Apollonia, constructed with large parallelepiped blocks of stones and bricks, which has been partially uncovered in the last few years, stretches for more than 4 kilometres and encloses a surface area of almost 100 hectares where a population of 40,000-50,000 people lived at the time of the city's expansion. Architecture and sculpture were quick to flourish in these cities.

In the middle of the fifth century BC, Dyrrachium and Apollonia struck their first coins, silver stator, and therefore freed themselves from economic dependence on the metropolis. At first these two cities were governed by a small council of aristocracy, composed according to Aristotle, of notable eupatrids. In 436 BC there was a civil war at Dyrrachium. The Taulantians and the city of Corcyra supported the aristocracy, while Corinth took the side of the rebels. Relations between Dyrrachium and Apollonia and the Illyrians played an important role in the history of these two cities, even these relations weren't always friendly. Pausanians, in his Greek Itinerary, quotes an inscription which he had read in Elide: this inscription was discovered in the source of research done at Olimpia in the last few years. It mentions a war which took place in the first half of the fifth century started by Apollonia against the Abantians or the Amantians, their southern neighbours.

In the fourth century BC, after the formation of the Illyrian state beyond Dyrrachium and Apollonia, the initiative passed to the Illyrians. In the middle of the century their king Monounios occupied Dyrrachium. He had his first coin struck, which bore the legend "Basileus Monounios". His successor, Glaucias, established his power in these two cities, and then defended them against Cassandra, king of Macedonia, who occupied them for a while. The Illyrian coins, the "Illyrian drachmas" spread throughout Illyria, and reached Dacia (Rumania) and Thrace (Bulgaria).

These new relations were also favourable to the Illyrian people living in the two towns. In the Dyrrachium necropolis, dating form the Hellenistic period, many funeral stelae (columns or flat stones) have been discovered, a third of them bear Illyrian names. We find names we actually know, like Agron, Teuta, Gentius, Bato, Dazai, Plator, Epicade, but also strange and unknown names like Anyla, Labia, Lydra, Skyrthan, Teutius, Zaimina and others. These names from millenniums to present days have been amongst Albanian people.

Research has revealed arms, metal ornaments and earthenware receptacles with Illyrian writing. Sculptures depict figures in Illyrian costume. Sculptures and relief also dedicated to Illyrian gods. Naturally the centuries have not spared ancient monuments. So all that been left at Dyrrachium are fragments of public buildings, and equally rare sculptures witnessing the influence of classical art. However, a colored mosaic from the end of the fourth century has been saved on which a woman's head can be distinguished; it is a remarkable piece of work. Moreover, recent research has revealed the physical features of the city of Apollonia more clearly .The wall supporting the Acropolis has remain almost intact. But research has only revealed a few traces of the monuments which embellished Apollonia in Greek period, the time of its expansion. However, the few that do remain do give us some impression - in particular, the supporting wall at the foot of the hill dominated by the temple of Artemis, and the porticoes with their seventeen stone niches, their thick octagonal columns and their sloping half-columns, crowned with remarkable Ionic capitals. Cicero's words about Apollonia "magna urbis et gravis" sufficiently illustrate the importance of this city.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#4  PostPosted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 5:01 am 
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The federative states

In the seventh century BC tribal federations had formed in southern Illyria. Ancient sources mention a certain Galaour, basileus, the military chief of the Taulantians who, towards the end of the seventh century, waged was against the king of Macedonia. Modern historians, interpreting a passage from Herodotus, have indicated that at this time an army of Encheliae, who lived around Lake Lychnitis (the present Lake Ochrid), invaded Greece and pushed as far as Delphi where they pillaged the sanctuary of the oracle. For the next two centuries, wars became more frequent in the southern Illyria and on its boundaries. Their aim was not solely pillage. The Illyrian kings were aiming to bring new tribes into their federation. From the seventh to the fifth centuries BC, in southern Illyria, elements of more evolved society emerged favoring the first federative states. If one believes the Greek author, Theopompos, the Ardians had 300,000 slaves, whose legal situation was identical to that of the Helots of Sparta. According to Agatharchidis, the Dardarians possessed many slaves; some of them more than a thousand. These class structures were the departure point for the earliest states.

However, different geographic conditions and unequal economic and social development prevented Illyrians from forming one state. Southern Illyria contained two distinct states-the kingdom of the Illyrians and the Koinon (community) of the Molossians (Molossians was later deemed a part of Epirus). Both of these had a federative character and were distinguished by the instability of royal power. As Greek and Latin authors report, in the first half of the fourth century BC, the kingdom of the Illyrians included the south-east regions of Albania. It was bounded on the east by the state of Macedonia and on the south by the Koinon of Molossia (Epirus).

These authors refer especially to the wars between this kingdom and their neighbours. The energetic and warlike King Bardyllis, taking advantage of the weakness of the Macedonians, had invaded the frontier of Macedonia and conquered their kings many times, forcing them to have over annual tribute. In 386 Bardyllis and Denys the king of Syracuse brought military aid to Epirus and established Alcetas on the throne, an ally of the tyrant of Syracuse.

The kingdom of the Illyrians (also called the kingdom of the Encheliae by the historians), with Bardyllis as its leader, became quite a powerful state in this Balkan region for more then a half century.

Towards the middle of the fourth century, in region of Philip II, when Macedonia became the most powerful state in Balkans, relations with the Illyrian kingdom were modified. Following the war in 358, Bardyllis was forced to abandon all his former Macedonian territories which he had occupied in the east. Philip wanted to force his way through to the Adriatic Sea and thus fulfill a part of his major ambition-the occupation of Greece. He succeeded in occupying a large part of Illyrian territory, but did not succeed in totally overcoming his western neighbours. The Illyrian dynasts withstood his attacks and rallied round the anti-Macedonian coalition, established under the aegis of Athens.

In the second half of the fourth century, ancient authors still refer to the Illyrian Kings, but this time as leaders of the western coast. Glaucias succeeded to the Illyrian throne in Monounios and Pleurias. He belonged to the Taulantian tribe, whose position was dominant in the federative state. Quintus-Curcus and Arrian, who left us a history of the Alexander the Great, indicate that Glaucias fought in 355 against Alexander, alongside Clitus who had held an uprising against Macedonia. The Illyrians were conquered beneath the wall of Pelion, but a few years later, Glaucias had re-established his army and again became a powerful adversary of Macedonia.

This time he made war against Cassandra, one of the Alexander's successors who were trying to capture the cities of Apollonia and Dyrrachium. Diodorus of Sicily, who described this conflict (314-12), reports that Glaucias assisted in the defense of the town of Apollonia. He must also have confronted the Macedonians and their allies in Epirus when he took under his protection and set on the throne the child Pyrrhus, son of Aeacus, from the Molossian dynasty.

The Illyrian realm maintained its polydynastic, federative character through the reign of Glaucias. Dyrrachium and Apollonia were incorporated into this kingdom, and like many other Illyrian cities or tribal centres, Notably Byllis, they increased in size and experienced and important economic growth. The northern limits of the Illyrian realms were extended and reached the Lissus region (in Lezha district in northern Albania).

By the beginning of the third century BC, especially after the quarrels for the throne between Glaucias successors, the kingdom had lost its former power. It was not strong enough to withstand Pyrrhus army and a large part of its territory was invaded by the Molossian king .The occupation did not last long, but the Illyrian King Mytilios, who reigned about the year 270, did not succeed in uniting the Illyrian tribes, which his predecessors had managed to keep in order. Certain of them, notably the Amantians, Byllians and Parthinians, became independent and created separate confederacies. Dyrrachium and Apollonia, although less powerful, retained for a while their standing as the state of Mytilios, but sensing the danger of a new invasion they searched for alliances with more powerful states. It was at this time that a delegation journeyed from Apollonia to Rome. In the north, beyond the boundaries fixed by Glaucias, other Illyrian tribes had become stronger and new dynasties had begun to take an active interest in restoring the state of Illyria.

Since the end of the fifth century BC, the Epirean tribes began to play a growing role in the history of southern Illyria .There is no doubt that these tribes to the Illyrian ethnic group; Thucydides himself called the inhabitants of Epirus "barbarians"-a term which the Greeks, as we all know, applied to a foreign people. In his turn, his contemporary, the geographer Ephorus, in his description of Greece, considered Epirus as lying outside the country. A large number of names of places, tribes and people in ancient Epirus, as well as the funeral trappings in the necropolis and the urban civilisation in the cities of Epirus, all testify that the civilization of this region was evidently of Illyrian character. It would not be possible to deny the strong influence of the Greek civilization on the culture of slave society of Epirus.

However, the fundamental ethnic characteristics of the indigenous population were not affected.

Of all the tribes of Epirus the Molossians were the most important. By rallying neighbouring tribes around them, they had established a "state" known by the name of the Koinon of Molossia, whith a Molossian king at its head, while the other tribes were represented by a supreme council.

The foreign policy of this state was dominated at the beginning by its strict relations with Athens, then with Syracuse. Under pressure from Macedonia, the Koinon of Molossia broke off its relations with Athens and was forced to form an alliance with Macedonia, especially after the marriage of Philip with the Molossian princess, Olimpia. With the help of Macedonia, the Koinon of Molossia extended its frontiers towards the Ionian coast .Reaching this sea, the developed its relations with neighboring countries in southern Italy and Sicily. In 334 the Molossian king, Alexander, even went to make war in Italy to come to the aid of Tarentus, his ally.

Led by Pyrrhus, the highly trained Epirote army waged victorious combats against the best armies of that time. His soldiers, according to Plutarch, called him the "Eagle” and he replied: "If I am an eagle, I owe it to you. And how can I not be when you have lifted me on your wings of your answer".

Attracted by the power of the Epiriots, the Greek towns in southern Italy begged its aid against threats of Rome and Carthage. Leaving from the Gulf of Vlore, in 280 BC, they set sail for Italy with an army of more than 25,000 men. They defeated the Romans first at Heraclea, then a year later (279 BC) at Ausculum. During these two violent battles, they used about twenty elephants brought from Egypt, which were thrown at the last moment into the terrified enemy.

From Iltaly Pyrrhus crossed to Sicily to defeat the Carthaginians. On his return from Sicily, he began the battle of Beneventum in Campania (275 BC) which brought victory to Romans. He managed to return to Epirus, bringing with him an army decimated and exhausted by six years hard combat. However, it was not long before he launched a series of campaigns against Macedonia, and then crossed to the Peloponnese to attack Sparta, an ally of Macedonia, but he was killed in 272 BC during a combat in the streets of Argos.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#5  PostPosted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 5:03 am 
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The last Illyrian Kingdom: the wars between Illyria and Rome


In the middle of the third century BC an Illyrian kingdom emerged in the political life of the Haemos (the old name of the present-day of Balkan) peninsula. A powerful federal state had been established in the region stretching around the Lake Shkodra and to the north. According to Polybos, the power of the Illyrian King Agron (250-31 BC) both on land and at sea was distantly superior to all his predecessors. Victorious over his neighbours he had annexed various regions of the Dalmatian coast. He had made an alliance with Macedonia and had advanced as far as Acarnania, where he had defeated the Aetolian army not far from the town of Medion.

On Agrons death, his wife Teuta, reigned as Regent for her young son, Pines, and continued the policies of her husband. She still sent the Illyrian fleet into Adriatic and Ionian seas. On her orders one expedition-among others-reached the shores of the Peloponnese which she pillaged. On her return, she disembarked in Epirus and captured Phoinike, the capital of Koinon of Epirus, which was forced into concluding an alliance with Illyrian Kingdom. Pursuing her conquest, Queen Teuta captured Corcyra and laid siege to Dyrrachium.

These successes did not fail to worry Romans who had already appeared on the western coast of the Adriatic, with the intention of establishing their authority on the other coast, so as to impose their domination over Illyria and Greece. As Polybius said, Rome was beginning to nourish the audacious project of subjugating the whole world to her laws.

Rome undertook her Illyrian campaign with the pretext of defending her commerce and navigation in the Adriatic, which according to her, were seriously threatened by Illyrian pirates. And so Rome started preparation for war.

The hostilities began in 229 BC and continued with few interruptions until 168 BC. Having taken possession of Corcyra after the treachery of Demetrios of Pharaos, the commandant of the island, and having captured Apollonia and Dyrrachium, by means of a powerful fleet of 200 ships, the Romans rallied to their cause the leaders of two most important tribes of southern Illyria, the Parthinians and Atintanians. Seeing the situation turn decidedly to her disadvantage, Queen Teuta made peace with Rome on very heavy conditions. Teuta did not survive for long after her defeat. Demetrios of Pharos, a man trusted by the Romans, succeeded her as a governor of Pines. However he soon manifested his independence by making an alliance with Macedonia. In 219 BC a second war was waged between Rome and the Illyrian Kingdom which ended in 218 with the defeat of Demetrios of Pharos. The Roman position in Illyria was reinforced.

A new governor of Pines, Skerdilaides, a protégé of Rome, was put at the head of the Illyrian Kingdom. Rome's military success in southern Illyria threatened the expansion of Macedonia. Her King, Philip V, immediately marched at the same moment against the Illyrians and Romans. Rome was involved in the Punic wars, so it was to her ally Skerdilaides that felt the heavy task of withstanding the reiterated assaults of the Macedonian army. Having conquered Carthage, Rome quickly turned against Macedonia. A long war followed, which did not end until 197 with the defeat of Philip V.

Skerdilaides and his son, Pleurate, continued to base their policies on Roman protection. Pleurate's successor, Gentius, who was called King of Illyrians (Rex Illyricorum), distinguished himself by an active external and internal policy. Following his policy of centralisation, Gentius deprived the cities of their autonomy, putting coins in his own name into circulation the Illyrian market. Despite these measures he could not keep his northern neighbours under his domination the Dalmatians, who freed themselves from his realm.

It is this general policy which explains his agreement with the Dardarians, his eastern neighbours, and his marriage with the daughter of the Dardarians king Monounios. This led him to approach Macedonia, who after its uprising during the reign of Perseus, had entered into battle with the Romans. In 168 BC Gentius in his return engaged in hostilities against Rome which marked the beginning of the third war between Illyria and Rome. Rome had little difficulty in bringing this last war to a victorious end. In fact, she had won to her cause the tribal chiefs and the town leaders, who were not happy with Gentius. The decisive battle took place at the foot of the city of Shkodra (north Albania). The Illyrians army suffered a crushing defeat. Abandoned by the Illyrian dynastic, Gentius surrendered to the Romans. After the battle of Shkodra the Romans went south and attacked Macedonia. They totally destroyed the Macedonian army. They then set forth for Epirus, but here they met with a strong resistance. However the Epiriotes paid very dearly for their bravery. With the authorisation of the Senate, the consul, Paulus Aemilius, allowed Epirus to be ruthlessly pillaged. As Livy said, "the number of prisoners reached 150,000 and the ramparts of nearly 70 towns were razed to the ground".

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#6  PostPosted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 5:05 am 
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The Roman occupation and the Illyrian revolts

Faithful to her traditional policy, Rome split the country into several administrative units, some of which were directly governed by her, while the others kept certain autonomy. With this division of South Illyria, Rome tried to prevent the danger of a new coalition against her. These regions were to serve as bases for the campaign which she planed against the northern Illyrians. This new phase of wars between Illyria and Rome, which began in 156 BC with the attack against Dalmatia, lasted for more than 150 years. In the occupied territory Rome instigated a regime of oppression and exploitation. Entire populations were expelled from their land .The Ardians in particular were massacred or sold as slaves and Roman militia or colonist came to settle in the most fertile zones of Illyria.

This provoked a whole series of insurrections on the parts of the Illyrians. The most important was that in the year AD 6, which stirred up all the regions of the Danude as far as Mat in northern Albania. Having formed a regular army of 200,000 infantry and 9000 cavalry, the rebels succeeded in freeing a major part of Illyria. They then got ready to cross into Italian peninsula. Rome was in danger of some very difficult moments because Augustus himself raised the alarm and said "if defence procedures were not taken in ten days, the enemy could enter the city" .The Romans hastened to send their most warlike legions and most capable generals into Illyria, but three years of bitter were needed before Tiberius, the future emperor who commanded the expedition could put an end to the Illyrian resistance .The last tribe to put down their arms were the Pirustae, of whom the Roman writer of that time, Velleius Apaterculus, said :

"They were almost unconquerable, on account of the geography of their country, which was bristling with mountains, and gashed with many gorges, and because of their savage nature and prodigious skill combat... if they finally surrendered, it was not because of any command, but annihilated by the sheer strength of Caesar's army".

If one can believe Suetonius, the Illyrian rebellion in the years AD 6-9 caused the most terrible of the wars which Rome had had to wage since the Punic wars. Rome at this time created the Illyrricum, and Illyrian territories were divided into two provinces, Macedonia and Illyrricum. In AD 10 Illyrricum was divided into two provinces: Dalmatia, which included the territories between the river Mat in the south and the Istria in the north, and Pannonia, which spread north of Dalmatia as far as the Danube. Much later, about second century, Epirus, until then divided into two provinces, Achaia and Macedonia. The provinces had at their head a magistrate who held civil and judicial powers and who decided the fiscal policy. He was helped by the quaestores, the aediles, and the procurators. As far as the administration on these provinces was concerned, the Romans preserved ancient tribal institutions in certain regions which might be useful to them. So in the inland regions, some Illyrian tribes continued to be governed by a praepositus and by their leaders, who in general were loyal to Rome.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#7  PostPosted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 5:08 am 
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The towns: means of communication


The Romans attitude to the Illyrian towns varied from place to place. In certain towns like Pollonia, Amantia and Phoinike, they allowed certain autonomy. In others like Dyrrachium, Buthroton, Byllis and Shkodra, especially in the time of Augustus, they housed war-veterans and Italian subjects alongside the indigenous population, thereby making colonies of the cities. This attitude was dictated by both economic, and political and strategic reasons. The towns were linked by a vast network of roads.

The main road, the Via Egnatia, crossed a large part of the peninsula, starting from Dyrrachium and Apollonia it led to Thessalonica, then Byzantium. Another important road started in Dyrrachium, passed through Lissus, and Shkodra, then took two directions-one went to the coastal regions of northern Illyria, and the other to Dardania (Kosova). These routes were interspersed with stage posts whose names can be found in the itineraries if the travellers at the end of the Ancient period. Worth noting is Scampinus (Elbasan) along the Egnatian Way.

In the first centuries AD the Illyrian towns experienced considerable economic growth, based on the development of commerce and crafts. Among products intended for outside markets, we should mention the cheese made by the Docleates and the Dalmatians, the gold jewellery made by the Dardarians and the clothes made by the Liburnians.

Having been conquered by Rome, Illyria was forced to undergo the influence of her civilisation notably in the colonies and the towns which had received the right of cities. New towns appeared, like Scampian (Peqin of modern central Albania) and Hadrianopolis (near Gjirokastra, south Albania). Under Roman occupation Illyrian sculpture moved towards the portrait style.

Despite the wide spread of Roman civilisation the majority of the population outside the towns and in the inland areas were almost shielded from Romanization. They preserved their own language almost until the end of the Ancient period. Hieronymus, a Dalmatian writer, mentioned still in AD 420 that a "barbarian" language was spoken in Illyria. The Illyrians preserved their names of people and places as well as their costumes. In religion, too, the Romans met with resistance. If they give Latin names to the Illyrian divinities, they did not succeed in modifying their iconography representation, or in depriving them of their ancient attributes.

A large number of new elements of Roman civilisation adopted by the Illyrians were objects of common use like tools and ornaments-eventually took on new features during the early Middle Ages, as they became integrated with traditional elements of the indigenous civilisation of the descendants of the Illyrians, the Albanians.

The crisis which hit the Roman Empire in the third century AD, a crisis provoked notably by the repeated raids by the "barbarians" tribes, forced Rome to reinforce her army. A conflict was growing between the Senate and the army. This new situation enabled a large number of Illyrian generals, such as Decius, Claudius II, Aurelian, Diocletian and Constantine to become leaders of the army and, in this way, of the Empire.

At the end of the fourth century AD, when the Roman Empire was shared out, the southern Illyrian regions were incorporated in the Eastern Empire. Throughout the fifth century they were to undergo successive invasions from the Visigoths, the Huns and the Ostrogoths.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#8  PostPosted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 5:09 am 
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From the Illyrians to the Albanians ( sixth to eleventh century AD)

At the beginning of the sixth century AD the country of Illyria, including the regions which belonged to the western Empire overthrown in 476, was entirely under the authority of the Eastern Empire. From an administrative point of view these countries were divided into eleven provinces, as opposed to the twenty-five which Byzantium now had in the Balkans. We can find the list, with its principal towns, in Hierocles, drawn up in sixth century in the reign of Justinian. Three of these towns, Dalmatia, Savia and the Mediterranean Noric, formed part of the diocese of western Illyricum attached to the prefecture of Italy, while lower Pannonia, first Moesia, Mediterranean Dacia, second Macedonia, and four southern provinces covered the present area of the Albanians, that is to say, Dardania, Prevalitania, New Epirus, Ancient Old Epirus with their respective metropolises, Scupi, Scutari (Shkodra), Dyrrachium, Nicopolis.

At the beginning of the sixth century the Emperor Anastasius undertook to construct at Dyrrachium, his birth town, a ring of fortresses with triple ramparts, with an exterior wall 7 kilometres long and a central wall so thick that if one can believe the Byzantine writer in the twelfth century, Ann Comnenus, four horseman could travel abreast along the top road. Remains of some remarkable pieces of works still survive: to mention only a few, the palaeochristian baptistery at Buthroton, the basilica with fifteen hemicycles in the village of Lin and the majestic colonnades in the amphitheatre discovered at Dyrrachium (Durres).

But these were final decades of the old society. On the northern bank of the Danube new troops of barbarian were massing, who aimed to pillage the riches of the Balkan and Constantinople, the capital of Empire. To check these invasions, Justinian had a large number of castles built along the boundaries and hundreds of citadels in the various provinces. His biographer, Procope of Caesarea, has left us in his book “De aedificiis” the list of 167 fortresses constructed or reconstructed in the four southern Illyrian provinces. In Dardania alone Procope counted 72, on of which, called Justiniana Prima, was built at Tauresian, Justinian's birthplace.

The inhabitants abandoned their villages at the approach of the barbarians.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#9  PostPosted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 5:10 am 
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Barbarian invasions and Slav migration


For the country of Illyria, the long reign of Justinian marked a period of internal trouble and incessant external attacks, the prelude to her ruin. The flood of barbarian invasions began against Illyria in 529 AD, with the arrival of Antes, then about 540 AD the Huns, the Lombards, the Herules, the Gepides and the Slavs. During the course of the second half of the sixth century AD, the political situation in the Balkan became even worst, following the appearance of the Avars, who had crossed the Danube in 568, and inflicted a serious defeat on the Byzantine army. Northern Illyria suffered a severe blow. The flood of barbaric and Slav invasions left terrifying devastation in their wake in the Illyrian countryside. The inhabitants had to endure dreadful suffering and extreme deprivation. "I believe”, Procope of Caesarea wrote recalling the prefecture of Illyrricum in his Historia arcana, "that we must estimate at more than 200,000 the number of Romans-Illyrians who were massacred or taken into captivity, in each of these invasions, leaving these provinces looking like the deserts of Scythia".

If at first the barbarians did not settle in the Illyrian provinces, during the war of 579-582, which brought the Byzantines against the Avars, a new trend appeared, with consequences which were to prove even more serious for the peninsula in general and for the Illyrians in particular. As John of Ephesus was to write four years later, they "ravaged, burned, pillaged and conquered the country, and fearlessly settled there themselves, as if in their own country".

This was only the beginning of the Slav migrations into IIlyrian territory and whole of the Balkan. Without any possibility of offering any effectual resistance, the Illyrians and Romans moved to a large number of coastal citadels, the Dalmatian island (the parts of Illyrian tribes in Dalmatia), and in today Albania, and in the high mountains.

The weakening of the Eastern Empire under the trouble reign of the basileus Phocas (AD 602-610) opened even wider the gates of Illyria to barbarian and Slav invasions, for by this time the Slavs had reached the Dalmatian coast. The Emperor Heraclius (AD 610-640), who was engaged for twenty years in a difficult war against the Perses, was not in a position to be interested in the Balkan.

According to the Miracula sancti Demetrii, written during these decades, entire provinces of Illyria were horribly ravaged.

A number of inhabitants in the towns had abandoned their homes to seek refuge in other areas, in interior or even outside Illyria. From the first half of the sixth century, the refugees from Epidaurus founded Ragusa, the emigrants from Salona found shelter in Spoleto, the inhabitants of Dioclea went down to Antivar, those of Apollonia moved to Vlore, and those of Albanopolis went up to Kruja. In the same way, as the Miracula testifies, thousands of other refugees, who came from the town of Naissus, in Mediterranean Dacia and the neighbouring provinces of Moesia, Dardania and Pannonia, took refuge in Thessalonica.

In the northern and eastern provinces of Illyria, Mediterranean Morique, inner Pannonia, first Moesia, Mediterranean Dacia, Savia, Macedonia and the inland area of Dalmatia -the Illyrians and the Romans who lived there must, in the seventh century, have formed little islands in the Slav Ocean. In the ninth century there were Illyrian people in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Macedonia and Dalmatia. On the other hand, in the southern provinces -New Epirus, Ancient Epirus, Albania, Prevalitania, and Dardania- the Illyrian population must have been preponderant and compact at least in most of the regions.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#10  PostPosted: Sat Jul 25, 2009 4:35 am 
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ILLYRIAN GROUPS



Septentrioanl Balkanic would include Dacian, Thracian, Illyrian, Messapian, and Venet, and would have some similar isoglosses with Baltic and Slav.

Thraco-Illyro-Phrygians, settled on Balkan peninsula. It took place in the XXIIIth or the XXIIth century BC. Scientists believe it was the time of linguistic unity of all Balkan peoples. Later they divided into two groups: Thraco-Illyrian and Thraco-Phrygian, the first spread to all Balkan mountains, Illyria, Pannonia, Dacia and parts of Italy, the second existed in South-East Balkans and partly in Asia Minor. Modern Albanian means everything that left after the first group, whether it is the direct successor of Illyrian language or just related to it.

Isolated Illyrian tribes deep into hinterland shared with the Thracian tribes the custom of tattooing their bodies and of offering human sacrifices.

-2000/-1200 Proto-Illyrians in former Yugoslavia. This is the group ancestral to Istri, Dalmatians, Pannonians and other Illyrian language family tribes, listed starting in -1200.


Vucedol est forme par la fusion de Baden-Kostolac avec des scpultures catacombes venus du nord-est. Ces peuples de cavaliers
portaient des haches de combat de section polygonales et des couteaux losangiques en cuivre. Ils utilisaient des poteries noires polies
(parfois avec des anses) decorees de signes solaires (cercles concentriques) incises, pointill's et sillonnes. Leurs descendants étaient
connus dans l'antiquie sous le nom de "Vénètes" en Italie du nord-est et en Slovénie. Plusieurs tribus issues de la culture de Vucedol partiront envahir l'Italie. Ces hommes, appelés "italiotes" ou "italiques", seront les ancètres directs des latins (Romains et Falisques) et des osco-ombriens.


Vucedol culture: in Croatia, Hungary, Bosnia, Austria, Czech Rep., Slovenia, Slovakia, and Germany, where men and womed were
buried toguether along offers. From there surely came the Apenine Culture of Italy. In Vucedol the tumular burials were replaced slowly by simple inhumations and cremations.

Since -1400 Illyrians in the Balkans.

-1500 Pannonians in north Croatia.

About -1300 the Illyrians settled on the northern and eastern coasts of the Adriatic Sea. Included among its members were various tribes of Dalmatians and the Pannonians. Those of Illyrians who crossed the Adriatic and settled in Italy spoke the Messapic
language.

IDEA: The Wends in Germany, the Venets in Brittany then could be linked with the dispersal of Illyrian peoples with the

In Croatia -1200/-700 Urnfield Culture with cremation and weapons inside urns.

IDEA: Such culture might have carried Illyrian there ?

The Illyrians were Indo-European tribesmen who appeared in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula about -1000, a period coinciding
with the end of the Bronze Age and beginning of the Iron Age. They inhabited much of the area for at least the next millennium.
Archaeologists associate the Illyrians with the Hallstatt culture, an Iron Age people noted for production of iron and bronze swords
with winged-shaped handles and for domestication of horses. All the western part of the Balkan Peninsula was considered, until recently, inhabited by the Illyrians. Basing on the latest researches,some scientists distinguish Dalmatians and Pannonians from Illyrians, although their languages were close or just Illyrian dialects. They also make the difference between Istrians and Liburnians who are close to the Venetians, having lived in present Northern Italy.

In about -1300 Illyrian and Venetic groups (or one group which was later divided into two) started migrating to the south, from Pannonia (modern Hungary) to Dalmatia (modern Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia). Urnfield (-1300), with cremation, spreads to Poland as the Lausitz culture; related to Illyrians and Venets. Secondary expansion to Greece, Asia Minor, Lacio, SE France, Catalonia, Netherland, and Dover area.

IDEA: That would point to an Illyrian occupation of Dalmatia around such epoch.

After having many children, Cadmus and Harmonia left Thebes in order to defend the Encheleans, a people living in southern Illyria,
which is the region north of Epirus, and there defeated the Illyrian intruders.

IDEA: So by the time of Cadmus (some two centuries before the Trojan Wars), there is attested the presence of Illyrians north of Greece, at least in legends.

ILYRIANS: Utilisation de tumuli comme lieux de sépulture jusqu’au début de l’ère chrétienne est caractéristique de ces populations. Objets déposés là sont bijoux, armes et monnaies. La grande difficulté pour
la connaissance de l’histoire des Illyriens tient à l’absence de texte écrit en langue illyrienne.


Sufficient is not known either of the language or customs of the Illyrians, by which their race may be ascertained. The most accurate
among the ancient writers have always distinguished them as a separate nation, or group of nations, from both the Thracians and Epirots. In the practice of tattooing their bodies, and offering human sacrifices, the Illyrians resembled the Thracians.

IDEA: as the Illyrians do not appear in history before the Peloponnesian War, it seems that the classics before that might have taken Illyrians as Thracians... Otherwise similar customs could have in fact a substrate origin.

After Illyrians began their movement to the south from the Danube valley, Phrygian tribes which probably came to the Balkans together with some branches of the Hellenic group were forced to leave their settlements and start the migration which was to play an important role in Anatolia. At first they lived in the northern Balkans, contacting with Thracians, Illyrians and Doric Greeks, and now had to cross the Bosporus and to settle in West Asia Minor, among non-Indo-European tribes who lived in Troy and other towns here.

DALMATIANS = PANNONIANS = ILLYRIANS

-1500/-1200 Liburni in Istria

Appian, The Foreign Wars: "The Liburni, another Illyrian tribe, were next to the Ardiæi as a nautical people". In another text:
"At the time when Cæsar held the command in Gaul these same Dalmatians and other Illyrians, who were then in a very prosperous
condition, took the city of Promona from the Liburni, another Illyrian tribe." And also: "They were supplanted by the Taulantii, an Illyrian tribe, who were displaced in their turn by the Liburnians, another Illyrian tribe, who were in the habit of making piratical
expeditions against their neighbors, with very swift ships."

LIBURNIANS = ILLYRIANS

Corcyra [Korfu], before the Greeks took possession of it, was peopled by them. (Strab. vi. p. 269.) So was Issa and the neighbouring
islands. (Schol. ad Apollon. iv. 564.). They were also considerably extended to the N., for Noricum, it is evident, had been previously
inhabited by Liburnian tribes; for the Vindelicians were Liburnians (Serv. ad Viry. Aen. i. 243), and Strabo (iv. p. 206) makes a distinction between them and the Breuni and Genauni, whom he calls Illyrians. The words of Virgil, too, seem distinctly to term the Veneti Liburnians, for the innermost realm of the Liburnians must have been the goal at which Antenor is said to have arrived.

LIBURNIANS were not [pure] ILLYRIANS!

IDEA: By such accounts the Liburnians together with Veneti expelled from North Italy (or subjugated) the native tribes, the Euganei.

At Ancona begins the coast of that part of Gaul known as Gallia Togata [North Italy, Po Bassin]. The Siculi [Epiro-Macedonians, also
Pelasgians] and the Liburni possessed the greater part of this district [since -1200, as the presence of Illyrians and Epirotes is
posterior to the Trojan War], and more particularly the territories of Palma, of Praetutia, and of Adria. These were expelled by the Umbri [Italics,as Urnfield invader, -1000], these again by the Etrurians [around -600, the colonists will be known as Raethians], and these in their turn by the Gauls [by -400, Celtics that will be the dominant ethnic element in the Po Basin at the arrival of the Romans]. (Pliny).

Ptolomey in the II Century: Illyrian tribe in Albania named "Albanians".

Après les invasions gothiques, puis l’arrivée des Slaves du Sud, se développe, en Albanie septentrionale notamment, la civilisation dite de Koman. Celle-ci est surtout remarquable par les bijoux, fibules, agrafes, qui témoignent de la permanence d’une
technique du métal et d’un art de la décoration apparentés aux productions illyriennes antérieures


IDEA: So Illyrian as say many scholars have the unique descendant left in Albanian.

Many Illyrian names have been preserved in Albanian language:
Didi=Dede, Lalus=Lala, Dassios=Dash, Bardhyllis=Bardhan, Bardhosh, etc.
Even such names could be explained by Albanian etymology:
Bardhyllis=bardhyllis=white star, or Bardibalus=bardi+balus=white forehead.

The Illyrian origins of Albanian can now be proven only with the use of lexical similarities of modern Albanian words with what was found
of the Illyrian glossary, some Illyrian - Albanian correspondences:
buris / burre "man"; datan / date "place"; drenis / dreni "deer"; pupa / pupe« "hill"; rera / lera "stones".

Modern Albanians still use the vigesimal numeric system of ancient Illyrians.


Arutiunov: the only remnant of Illyrian is Albanian.

Strabo, Geography: The [Thracian] Bessi live in huts and lead a wretched life; and their country borders on Mount Rhodope, on the
country of the Paeonians, and on that of two Illyrian peoples-the Autariatae, and the Dardanians.

DARDANIANS (around modern Kosovo) = ILLYRIANS

According to HOLLIS, the Illyrian languages include the Messapian and Venetic language.

Strabo: "And further, the Iapodes (we now come to this mixed tribe of Illyrii and Celti) dwell round about these regions [west Slovenia]; and Mount Ocra is near these people. The Iapodes, then, although formerly they were well supplied with strong men and held as their homeland both sides of the mountain and by their business of piracy held sway over these regions, have been vanquished and completely outdone by Augustus Caesar. Their cities are: Metulum, Arupini, Monetium, and Vendo. After the Iapodes comes Segestica, a city in the plain, past which flows the River Save [Sava], which empties into the Ister."

Les Alpes s'etendent jusqu'au pays des Iapodes, nation tout à la fois celtique et illyrienne. [Strabo, Book VII, 31]

Les Iapodes sont etablis pres de l'Albie, très haute montagne qui se trouve l'extremite des Alpes, et vont d'un ce´te jusqu'aux Pannonies et e Pister, de l'autre jusqu'e l'Adrias. ils sont tatoues tout comme les autres Illyries et les Thraces. [Strabo, Book VII, 33]

IAPODES = ILLYRIAN TRIBE (but Celtized)

Appian, The Foreign Wars: They are called Pæones [Paeones] by the Greeks, but Pannonians by the Romans.

Paeones: They appear neither as Macedonians, or Illyrians, but professed to be descended from the Teucri of Troy.

Next followed the Paeonians, who occupied both banks of the Strymon, from its source down to the lake near its mouth, but were pushed away from the coast towards the interior. (Strabo).

But who, he [Darius] answered, œare the Paeonians, and where do they dwell, and with what intent have you come to Sardis?
[in Lydia] They told him, that they had come to be his men, that the towns of Paeonia lay on the Strymon, a river not far from the
Hellespont, and that they were colonists from the Teucrians of Troy. (Herodotus).


Appian, The Foreign Wars: "Among the many myths prevailing among many peoples this seems to me the most plausible. Illyrius had six sons, Encheleus, Autarieus, Dardanus, Maedus, Taulas, and Perrhaebus, also daughters, Partho, Daortho, Dassaro, and others, from whom sprang the Taulantii, the Perrhaebi, the Enchelees,
the Autarienses, the Dardani, the Partheni, the Dassaretii, and the Darsii. Autarieus had a son Pannonius, or Paeon, and the latter had
sons, Scordiscus and Triballus
, from whom nations bearing similar names were derived. But I will leave these matters to the archaeologists."

ILLYRIANS = DARDANIANS = PAEONES/PANNONIANS

Francisco Villar: The Paeonian was IE; per example in its sonority of aspired sonors (*bh, *dh, etc. > /b/, /d/, etc.), and in names as Agrianes, Paeonian tribe (from *agro- field, as the Latin ager) or in Doberos, Paeonian city (from *dheubh- deepe,
as the Greek and Lithuanian dubus).

Appian, The Foreign Wars: "These peoples [Illyrian tribes], and also the Pannonians, the Rhaetians, the Noricans, the Mysians of Europe, and the other neighboring tribes who inhabited the right bank of the Danube, the Romans distinguished from one another just as the various Greek peoples are distinguished from each other, and they call each by its own name, but they consider the whole of Illyria as embraced under a common designation."

IDEA: Such fact can be explained as that once such Great Illyria was ethnically homogeneus: it is attested that the Rhaetians crossed the Alps in classical sources, also we know that the Norics were Celtics that sprang with the Hallstadt culture, and the Mysians could have suffered a process of Thracization.

The earliest writer who has left any account of the peoples inhabiting the Adriatic coast is Scylax; according to whom the Illyrians,
properly so called (for the Liburnians and Istrians beyond them are excluded), occupy the sea-coast from Liburnia to the Chaonians of
Epirus. The Bulini were the northernmost of these tribes, and the Amantini the southernmost. Herodotus (i. 196) includes under the name, the Heneti or Veneti, who lived at the head of the gulf; in another passage (iv. 49) he places the Illyrians on the tributary streams of the Morava river [Bosnia].


Croatia: Celts there since -400 with La Te¨ne Culture; cremation funerals, and being substrat for the actual Croat language.

NOTE: The possible Illyrian branch of the Venets is taken into consideration in Italy's section. Also the Messapic tribes.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#11  PostPosted: Sun Aug 02, 2009 3:07 am 
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ILLYRIANS AS MESSAPIANS


-1200 Illyrians arrive at South Italy. Inscriptions discovered in south-eastern Italy, written in one of Italic alphabets, were identified as using the language similar to Illyrian. After Illyrians occupied the regions of Dalmatia and reached the Adriatic shores, they crossed the narrow sea space and found themselves in Italy. This migration is believed to take place together with similar mo ves of Italic tribes from the Balkans to Italy - the second Italic wave-, including Osco-Umbrian peoples. Illyrians also settled on the Apennine peninsula, and lived there until they were completely assimilated by Roman settlers. This Illyrian branch was called Messapic by ancient authors. Nowadays we can state that the Messapic language was rather different from

Illyrian: first of all in lexical composition, where it shows many "italianisms" [by substrate ?].

The Illyrian and Messapian are supposed to be close languages, as historical testimonies and archaeological evidences point to an
Illyrian origin of the Messapians. In the other side the linguistic evidence is scarce to confirm that since there are not Illyrian inscriptions left, and Illyrian characteristics are based in personal names (anthoponymy) and place names (toponymy).

It is quite certain that Messapic is of Illyrian descent, having been brought over across the Adriatic as attested in classical authors.

Still later a migration from Illyria is thought to have brought the Messapic language to Apulia in the seventh century. Messapian is an
Indo-European language, Illyrian rather than Italian.

By the eighth century Greek traders began to arrive, and in the seventh century Messapians came from Illyria into Apulia. Iron forges
have been found in the southern region that show the Iron Age had already begun prior to the arrival of the Greeks and Messapians.
In Campania, Calabria, and Sicily there was the Fossa Grave culture, while in Apulia there was a distinctly different Iron Age culture.
However even after the new arrivals, features in the indigenous material culture still resembled that of the Apennine culture from the
Italian Bronze Age.

IDEA: That would point to a more early arrival of the Illyrian tribes to Apulia, maybe by -1200. The Fossa Grave could correspond to the Pelasgian tribes.

At Ancona begins the coast of that part of Gaul known as Gallia Togata [North Italy, Po Bassin]. The Siculi [Pelasgians] and the Liburni [Illryians] possessed the greater part of this district, and more particularly the territories of Palma, of Praetutia, and of Adria. These were expelled by the Umbri, these again by the Etrurians, and these in their turn by the Gauls. (Pliny).

IDEA: The fact that a Illyrian tribe occupied the Po Basin before the Italics point to an early date: maybe -1100 ? Also that such tribe occupied the Po Bassin, and that the Massapics occupied the Adriatic coast would point to a territorial unity in Italy.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#12  PostPosted: Sun Aug 02, 2009 3:15 am 
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Illyrian Ceasers, Emperors


EMPERORS: ILLYRIANS


The Illyrians, exploiting the privileges of allegiance to Rome, moved up the ranks rather quickly and eventually ruled the empire.
Emperors of Illyrian origin reigned in both the Roman and Byzantine empires.

ILLYRIAN-ROMAN EMPERORS

Claudius II - Gothicus, as he was also known, reigned for a short period from 268-270 AD. He was born in Dardania in 214. He was a Roman officer in the army and upon the death of the Roman emperor Gallenius in 268 was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers and was affirmed by the Roman senate. His reigned was highlighted by several military campaign victories over the invading Goths (Germanic tribe) and for this he named known as Gothicus. He died on the throne in 270.

Aurelian - Aurelian reigned from 270-275 AD. Born in Moesia in 214. He received high military status under the reign of Claudius II. Aurelian's emphasis was to restore the general welfare and unity of the empire and was given the title, Restitutor Orbis, or Restorer of the Empire. He commissioned a wall to enclose the city of Rome, but was assassinated by some of his officers in 275 on a expedition to Persia before it was completed.

Probus - He reigned from 276-282 AD. He was born in Pannonia. As a Roman officer he kept the Germanic tribes at bay. After the murder of his rival, Probus assumed the throne. He led many successful military campaigns and was known as a military emperor and would eventually see the same fate as Aurelian as Probus was also killed by some of his officers in 282. He did complete the enclosing wall of Rome that was begun by his predecessor.

Diocletian - He was born in 245 to a Dalmatian family and reigned from 284-305 AD.
Diocletian became a Roman officer and was declared emperor in 284. Because of hostilities in respects to his reign, Diocletian made his confidant and his Pannonian officer, Maximian joint emperor in 286 and Constantius I (an Illyrian from Moesia and father of Constantine the great - ruled jointly with Maxentius from 305-306) and Galerius as Caesars, or sub-emperors. This method succeeded brilliantly as Britain was restored to the empire and the Persians were subdued. He did incur economic problems and Christians were severely persecuted under his reign. After his and Maximian's abdication in 305, the once brilliant system of emperors and sub-emperors led to internal strife. Maximian returned to aid his son, Maxentius, but was forced out by him in 308. Maximian committed suicide in 310 to the advice of Constantius I. Diocletian had retired to his Palace in Salona, Dalmatia and died in 313.

Constantine the Great - Born in Moesia in 285. Reigned from 306-323 as joint emperor and then solely from 323-337 AD. He was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and established it as the preferred religion. Constantine defeated Maxentius in 312 to become sole ruler in the western province and defeated the joint emperor, Licinius, to become the sole Roman ruler. Constantine also moved the empire's capital to the Greek city, Byzantium and later renamed it Constantinople. After his death, Constantine's sons would also rule:

Constantine II (337-340)
Constans I (337-350) and
Constantius II (337-361)


ILLYRIAN-BYZANTINE EMPERORS

Justin I - Born of Dardanian peasants in 450 AD and ruled from 518-527 AD.
Surprisingly elected to the throne at the age of 70 only because of his military expertise. Justin began to see a formidable threat against the Byzantium - the Slavs who began to settle on the empires borders. Justin would not live long enough to see the Slavic invasion dying of an illness in 527.

Justinian I - Born in 483 AD and appointed successor by his uncle Justin I.
Justinian assumed the throne in 527 after Justin's death and would rule until 565. His reign was one of Imperial greatness as he recaptured much of the territory of the western empire that fell to the Germanic invaders and successfully kept the Slavs at bay. He also unified Roman laws into one code known as the Justinian code (civil laws). Unlike his illiterate Illyrian predecessors, Justinian had acquired an early education at Constantinople. Justinian was the last of the Illyrian emperors. The fact that the Illyrians never recorded their history has left archaeology as the only key to unlocking the mystery that still enshrouds them. As new evidence emerges such as the phallic artifacts found in Croatia, chapters on the Illyrian way of life are being rewritten as a people once bent on worshiping deities and symbols of fertility.
The Illyrians have been great generals ,not creative in art or architecture as the Greeks and Romans, but they are proving to archaeologists that their origins and culture expand beyond the bounds of an ordinary people, in turn, shedding new light on early European history.

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 Post subject: Re: The Illyrians: their origins and homes
Post Number:#13  PostPosted: Sun Aug 02, 2009 3:21 am 
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Illyrians Kings, Queen

RULERS: ILLYRIA PROPER

For simplicity, the history of the Illyrian Rulers and their kingdoms will be viewed through a "dynastic" timeline. However, what can be said for the Ardiaei, a true dynasty as control was passed within the ruling house cannot be said for Bardylis' kingdom. Although there is a bloodline within Bardylis' kingdom, they are few and far between. Nonetheless, the Illyrian kingdom and their independence begins with Bardylis.

THE KINGDOM OF BARDYLIS
(War and Macedon)

Bardylis - Usurper and founder of this dynasty. Reigned 385 to 358 BC. Bardylis was a Dardanian* coalman who acquired a huge popularity by dividing the spoils gained. Under his reign, the Illyrians nearly succeeded in destroying the kingdom of Macedon, however, in 359 BC, Philip the Great conquered the Illyrians. Bardylis made peace with Philip before dying in 358 BC at the age of 90.

Grabus - Attested in 356 BC. His name is evidently a dynastic one in the royal house of the Grabaei* (Illyrians who lived around the Lake of Shkoder in northern Albania). In a coalition contrived by the Athenians, Grabus of Illyria, Lysippus of Paeonia and Cetriporis of Thrace combined to resist the rising power of the Macedonians. Philip II advanced on this coalition before they had a chance to unite their forces. In a great battle, Grabus was defeated by Parmenio (Macedonian general) and was compelled to serve under Macedon.

Pleuratus I - Testified in 344 BC. Pleuratus' name is a dynastic one from the royal house of the Ardiaei. After Philip's reduction of the Grabaei, Pleuratus, in a losing effort, tried to thwart Philip's advances in Illyria almost succeeding in killing Philip in 337 if not for a bodyguard receiving Pleuratus' sword.

Skerdilaidas - Reigned from 212 to 206 BC. He was the brother of Agron. Skerdilaidas kept his alliance with Rome, but his kingdom was in constant attack from Macedon.

Pleuratus II - Son of Skerdilaidas. Reigned from 205 to 180 BC. He remained an ally of Rome and invaded Illyrian territories held by Philip V of Macedon. In 197 BC, having grown tiresome of Philip's attacks on their allies, the Romans set out after Philip and destroyed him. For his contribution and because of his alliance with Rome, Pleuratus was awarded with great wealth.
Kleitus - Son of Bardylis. Attested in 335 BC. After the death of Philip II, Glaukias, ruler of the Taulanti, joined Kleitus when he rebelled against Alexander the Great in 335 BC. Glaukias gave Kleitus sanctuary when their effort for independence had been defeated and pursued by Alexander to the mountains of the Taulanti.

Glaukias - Ruler of the Taulanti and then Illyrian king from 317 to 303 BC. In 314 BC, Glaukias was defeated by Cassander, successor of Alexander the Great, who reclaimed possession of Dyrrachium and Apollonia and bound the Illyrian king by treaty not to attack the allies of Macedon. Glaukias is best known as the adoptive father of Pyrrhus, the famous Molossian prince and later king of Epirus.

Bardylis II - Attested in 295 to 290 BC he was the son of Kleitus. Not much is known of this Illyrian king or what territory he held after the reign of Glaukias. However, being that Pyrrhus was the adopted son of Glaukias, it is very possible that Bardylis II and Pyrrhus shared Glaukias' kingdom** and the marriage of Birkenna, the daughter of Bardylis II, to Pyrrhus only lends support to that theory and the establishment of Pyrrhus' power in southern Illyria.

Monunius - Attested in 280 BC. Monunius was of Dardanian royalty and thus possibly a descendent or relative of Bardylis. In 280 BC, Monunius joined Ptolemy, the ruler of Thrace, in an attack on Ptolemy Ceraunus, the king of Macedon. In that same year, the Celts invaded Macedon and Monunius offered Ptolemy Ceraunus 20,000 soldiers, but being suspicious of Monunius' intentions, he rejected the offer and the Celts destroyed Macedon in 279 BC. In the aftermath and death of the Macedonian king, a coin of Macedonian type with the legend "MONOYNIOY" should be attributed to this Illyrian king and possibly the Macedonian throne.

Mytilius- Attested about 270 BC. Mytilius was the successor of Monunius. Mytilius, unsuccessfully, invaded territories in southern Illyria held by Alexander of Epirus,son of Pyrrhus. Following his predecessor's footsteps (Monunius was the first Illyrian king to have issued coins), Mytilius also struck coins bearing his name. Both kings minted their coins at Dyrrachium.

Agron - Son of Pleuratus. Reigned from 250 to 230 BC. Agron had the most powerful force, both by land and sea and the greatest kingdom known to the Illyrians. His kingdom included much of Illyria proper, Epirus and the island of Corcyra. In 231 BC, Demetrius II, king of Macedon, pleaded to Agron for military aid against the Aetolians (Greeks). In a military defeat that rocked Mount Olympus, the brave Illyrian soldiers routed the mighty Aetolians and returned home with great booty. Agron, overjoyed with the news, drank himself into oblivion and died in the winter of 230 BC.

Queen Teuta

Queen Teuta , was an Illyrian queen and regent who reigned approximately from 231 BC to 228 BC.
After the death of Agron (250 BC?-231 BC) who established the first kingdom of Illyria, extending from Dalmatia on the north to the Aous (Vjosa river) River on the south with Shkodër as its capital, his widow, Teuta, acted as regent for her young stepson Pinnes. Teuta's first decision was to drive the Greek colonies off the Albanian coast. Attempting this, she found Durrës too well fortified but Finiq farther south surrendered. While her Illyrian ships were off the coast of Sarandë they intercepted and plundered some merchant vessels of Rome. Encouraged by this success, Teuta's pirates extended their operations southward in the Ionian Sea, westward along the coast of Italy, and were soon feared as the terror of the Adriatic.

The Roman Senate sent two ambassadors to the pirate lair at Shkodër to require reparations and demand an end to the piratical expeditions. Apparently she told the ambassadors that according to the law of the Illyrians, piracy was a lawful trade and that her government had no right to interfere with this as a private enterprise. One of the envoys is repored to have replied that in that case Rome would make it her business to introduce better law among the Illyrians. At any rate, one of the ambassadors addressed the queen so disrespectfully that her attendants killed him as he embarked for Rome.

This was too much for Rome to endure. In 229 BC, Rome declared war on Illyria and for the first time armies crossed the Adriatic to Illyria (the Balkan Peninsula in modern usage). The Roman fleet of 200 ships went first to Corcyra. Teuta's governor, Demetrius had little alternative but to surrender, and the Romans awarded him a considerable part of Teuta's holdings (228 BC). The Roman army then landed farther north at Apollonia. The combined army and navy proceeded northward together, subduing one town after another and besieging Shkodra, the capital. Teuta finally surrendered in 227 BC, having to accept an ignominious peace. The Romans allowed her to continue her reign but restricted her to a narrow region around Shkodra, deprived her of all her other holdings, and forbade her to sail an armed ship below Lissus (Lezhë) just south of the capital. They also required her to pay an annual tribute and to acknowledge the final authority of Rome. Thus the damage was done. Thanks to Queen Teuta the expanding empire of Rome had learned the military route to the Balkan peninsula.

According to John Wilkes, "With such a large repertoire of Illyrian names it is possible to consider etymologies and links with other Indo-European languages of which a fuller record survives. Thus it seems generally agreed that the name of the Illyrian queen Teuta of the third century BC derives from Teutana, which means queen."

Pinnes - Reigned from 230 to 217 BC. Pinnes was the son of Agron and Triteuta, Agron's first wife. However, being a minor at the time of Agron's death, Pinnes ruled under the tutelage of his stepmother, Teuta. Feeling the pressures of the local chieftains who demanded more freedom and power, Teuta, gave in to them and soon the Adriatic and Ionian seas began being plundered by Illyrian pirates. Greece, losing ships and trade to Illyrian pirates, pleaded to Rome for help. Rome sent envoys to Illyria. Teuta, who would not hear of any foreign influence within her state, rebuffed and ambushed them. In 229 BC (first Roman-Illyrian War), Rome set out for Illyria. Knowing she was no match against the Roman armies, Teuta agreed to peace terms and abdicated the throne to Pinnes. Pinnes again would be pushed aside. The Greek, Demetrius of Pharos (todays Croatian island of Hvar), marries Pinnes' mother, Triteuta, and gains control of the kingdom. Disregarding the peace terms with the Romans, Demetrius, allied the Illyrian kingdom with Macedon who happened to be Rome's enemy. In 219 BC (second Roman-Illyrian War), a powerful Roman army was sent against Demetrius and after fierce battle, Demetrius retreats to Macedon. The throne is restored to Pinnes who dies suddenly in 217 BC at the age of 15.

Gentius - Son of Pleuratus. Ruled from 180 to 168 BC. Given his intemperate habits and lack of restraint, Gentius treated his subjects with great cruelty. Furthermore, fearing he might lose political strength, he even had his brother, Plator, put to death. Gentius was soon to make a costly mistake. Gentius renewed associations with Macedon and that threw the Romans into a rage. Roman commanders led a force of 30, 000 soldiers towards Shkodra (Illyrian capital). In 168 BC (third Roman-Illyrian War), Gentius was forced to surrender. He and his entire family are taken into Roman custody. The Illyrian kingdom and their political independence end with Gentius. Rome annexes Illyria and it becomes the Roman province 'Illyricum.

Byllis - was an Illyrian king of the late 2nd century BC, known from his coinage, which is well-attested; in fact, the coins of the well-known Illyrian king Gentius are scarce in comparison to the coins of Ballaios. Byllis appears to have ruled after 168 BC at Queen Teuta's old stronghold, Rhizon (now Risan). His silver issues are rare, but bronze coins (without the royal title) occur on Hvar, both in single finds and in hoards, and at Rhizon in a different series bearing the royal title. The coins of Ballaios were widely imitated in the region, sometimes so crudely that they are unintelligible.

Baraliris - was an Illyrian ruler, who after seeing a sign in a dream, embarked on a series of military victories which allowed him to extend Illyrian rule over the Molossians and other tribes, as far as the frontiers of Macedon

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