"Moreover, you scorned our people, and compared the Albanese to sheep, and according to your custom think of us with insults. Nor have you shown yourself to have any knowledge of my race. Our elders were Epirotes, where this Pirro came from, whose force could scarcely support the Romans. This Pirro, who Taranto and many other places of Italy held back with armies. I do not have to speak for the Epiroti. They are very much stronger men than your Tarantini, a species of wet men who are born only to fish. If you want to say that Albania is part of Macedonia I would concede that a lot more of our ancestors were nobles who went as far as India under Alexander the Great and defeated all those peoples with incredible difficulty. From those men come these who you called sheep. But the nature of things is not changed. Why do your men run away in the faces of sheep?"
Letter from Skanderbeg to the Prince of Taranto ▬ Skanderbeg, October 31 1460

FUSTANELLA

Sillni fotografi historike që dëshmojne anët e panjojtura të një ngjarje, personi, apo fenomeni historik, ose që ndihmojnë në favor të një teze historike.

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Re: FUSTANELLA

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Post by Rina » Wed May 30, 2012 9:05 pm

ARBANAS (1884 – 1886.)

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1157

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Jul 15, 2012 2:19 pm

Pres verejtjet dhe sugjerimet tuaja! Artikullin e meposhtem e kam bere une duke shfrytezuar materialet e hedhura ketu gjate viteve. Mendoj se ky artikull duhet te jete prone e Arberia's, keshtu qe kontribuoni edhe ju me ndonje verejtje tuajen!
Somes notes on Fustanella

Much ink has been spilt over the origin of marvelous garment – the famous kilt known as ‘fustanella’. While it is hard to pinpoint it’s origin as long as primary sources are lacking, archaeological findings have cast some light to its early usage. It would not be superfluous to assume its pre-Greek roots. This is the likeliest point that has not been questioned so far. Yet a dazzling hypothesis traces its origin back to Illyrians – who used to live on the northern fringes of Greece.

Ancient geographers unanimously deemed Ambracia as the most northern Greek city, implying that Illyrians were to be found in the vicinity [1]. Linguistic analyses have made abundantly clear that Illyrians crept in the midst of Greece, as it has been ascertained by the presence of Illyrian toponyms [2]. Some authors assiduously thought that Greeks culturally owed much to the Illyrians. More appropriately, the white kilt was Illyrian from the very inception as far as our knowledge goes [3].


The Roman occupation of Greece which was followed up by the invasions of marauding Goths, Huns and Avars wrecked the Greek civilization to a great extent[4]. As a matter of fact, Greek culture was greatly adulterated due to the infusion of foreign elements. In the same vein, Christianism eradicated ancient Greek monuments as well as traditions which were perceived as ‘pagan’ [5].

Various theories have been proposed in regard with the Slavic impact on Greece[6]. While the Fallmerayer’s theory is generally disavowed, it seems evident that certain parts of Greece were engulfed by Slavic settlers [7]. With the drift of time, they were profoundly Hellenized but some of their vestiges were left for a long time [8]. Ancient Greeks who had numerically shrunken from invasions, wars and other calamities were confined on the Aegean islands and Asia Minor. The emergence of Byzantine Empire favored considerably Greek language, which become officialised even at the religious level.

The rest of Balkans shared the same fate, with the exception of some Illyrian tribes who kept intact their identity by retaining to the remote mountains of modern Albania [9]. Numerous scholars have soundly argued that modern Albanians are by and large the descendants of Illyrians [10]. This view is further bolstered by the account of Claudi Ptolemy who mentioned expressively Albanoi (as one of the Illyrian tribes), locating their seats in the nearby of Durrës (ancient Dyrrachium). The kernel of that territory resides on the territory of Albania, which make it likely the possibility that Illyrians never fully succumbed to Romanization or Slavization. As Illyrian culture did not perish, Albanians continued to wear the ancient skirt or fustanella, which is testified by unaccountable descriptions, sources and other evidences.

The most tangible proof is the attestation of fustanella on Illyrian sculptures that have been unearthed by archaeologists in Albania and Slovenia [11]. There is little room to doubt that Albanians retained this old garment down to XXth century. Franz Nopcsa argued persuasively that Fustanella was spread as far as Scotland, presumably by the Illyrian soldiers who were employed on Roman legions. At the first glimpse, the kilt of Scots is the same as that of Albanians.

Lord Byron was the first who noticed that similarity [12]. The fanciful claim that fustanella was a Byzantine garment falls short of convincing. That argument relies on the untenable assumption that southern Albanians loaned it from the much advanced Greeks during Byzantine period. However, such a claim has no ground to stand on for even the northern Albanians wore the white fustanella.

Suffice is to say that fustanella among the inhabitants of Macedonia is known as ‘toska’ possibly because the costume was originally introduced in the country by the Albanians of Toskëria. Rennal Rodd has devised a hypothesis that derives the fustanella origin back to the tunic skirt of the Roman solider, but he further refrained from citing any reliable source [13].

The presence of Albanians in Greece was well-established through centuries. As our intention is not to elaborate in depth that perplexed question, we should note that their major contribution on Revolutionary Wars prompted the independence of Greece [14] .
The islands of Spetzai, Hydra and Poros were inhabited almost exclusively by people of Albanian blood [15]. In the struggle for independence they contributed such national figures as Miaulis, Djavela, Marko Bochari and the female naval commander Laskarina Bubulina [16].

Albanian was spoken by the crews of navy and guerrilla fighting groups in various parts of Greece [17]. The peasantry under the command of “Albanians leaders Kolokotronis, Botzaris and the other captains became the bulwark of the independence” [18]. The Tyrolean historian, Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer on one occassion has confidently stated, “If one calls this country a new Albania, wrote the same author, one gives it its real name”. [19]

Due to their remarkable military reputation, Albanians made their influence towards their neighbors. The warlike affinity of Albanians has been generally admired by the Europeans. “The Albanians plowed with the spear”, went a saying [20]. The renowned Greek historian, Andre Gerolymatos points out that Albanians even set the fashion for Balkan warriors with their kilts [21]. Eventually many Ottoman notables also adopted the Albanian look as did the klephts and the armatoli [22].

The adoption of fustanella as the national garment of Greece has been attributed to that period by many. Gerolymatos argues persuasively that “by the early 19th century the guerrilla warfare of klephts was common throughout the Balkans, it had its roots in Albania” [23]. The popularity of the costume was enhanced during the Greek war of liberation. It was probably at this time that the Albanian dress made its decisive step towards being regarded as the national dress of Greece. As William St. Claire pointed out: “The government party, being largely Albanians themselves, favoured the dress and a version of it was commong among the Greek klephts and armatoli. Not it seemed that anyone who donned an Albanian dress could claim to be a soldier and share in the bonanza” [24].

Warrner also concluded the since the revolution “the Albanian has been adopted as the Grecian costume, in default of anything more characteristic, and perhaps because it would puzzle one to say what race the person calling himself a modern Greek is’. He further investigates on the reasons why the Fustannela has been abandoned by the peasantry [25].

To put it simpler, Greece adopted the white pleated kilt “for her national guard to commemorate the part Albanians played in freeing Greece’ [26]. Since then Albanian fashion is deceitfully deemed as Greek costume. It is even worn by the men guarding the tomb of the Unknown Soldier in front of the Greek Parliament.

Considering the fact that in Greek nationalist narrative exist an unwillingness to recognize the Albanian pedigree of many ‘national’ heroes, many historians have made some futile attempts to conceal the origin of fustanella. As Sfakidas justly observed, in Greece many paradoxes shroud the history of the national dress. He further examines the Albanian origin of that white kilt, something that does not emerge in the contemporary narratives of ‘Greekness’. He holds that long before it came to symbolize Greek independence from the Ottoman Turks, the Albanian kilt, or fustanella, was common dress for men in the thirteenth century when it was worn by the Dalmatians, one of the Illyrian progenitors of the Albanians. The historical and etymological roots of the fustanella, however, date back to the days of Rome, when the Albanian or Illyrian kilt became the original pattern for Roman military dress.

The outlandish hypothesis that ought to link fustanella with ancient Greeks is dismantled. Sfakidas points out: “No ancient Greek garments have survived to confirm that the origins of the fustanella have survived to confirm that the origins of the fustanella are indeed in the pleated garments or chitons that were worn by men in Pericle’s Athens [27].

Almost every subject related to Greeks has always raged emotions rather than rationalism. The philhellenes of America, Britain and Western Europe have long called for a free Greek state in a romantic passionate attempt to bring to life the Hellenic culture of the past. As Glenny note: “Little did any of them know of what extreme changes had taken place in the region of what was once the Greek City States. ‘Naturally, many travelers and philhellenes were shocked at the Greeks’ lack of sophistication, and the absence of a physical resemblance to the Hellenes of their classical imagination” [28].

It’s becoming increasingly clear that ‘Greek purity’ is product of sheer fantasy [29]. Bearing in mind the complexity of Byzantine Empire through centuries, ethnic mixing occurred during all the time. A modern historian believes not without justice that Byzantine Greeks were more heterogeneous than ancient Greeks [30]. It should be noted that theory that linked modern Greeks with Slavs prevailed among 19th century scholars. It was assessed as feasible that Slavization ceased because of restoration of Byzantine church, who promoted Greek language through liturgy [31]. The glory of being offspring of ancient Greeks provided to contemporary Greeks “an unusually strong national rallying point” as McKinley would call it [32].

Whatever the scale of various migrations was, it appears evident that their culture was greatly adulterated. One may note in passing that Greek dress underwent a strong Asiatic influence. As George Rolleston eyewitnessed: “The fustanella, or multifold petticoat of the Albanian is not worn by the Anatolian Greek, though it is becoming the national dress of the Hellenic” [33]. The origin of the Albanians seems to be settled beyond any doubt. Nearly all scholars associate them as being related to the oldest ethnic stock in Europe, along with the Basques [34]. It was probably the consistence of Albanian culture which made it possible to retain remarkably ancient customs, including the white-kilt or fustanella.

While the ardent Phil-Hellen, George Finlay was visiting Athens, he found the Albanian costume as the most striking. He adds that even the proudest Osmanlees in Macedonia and Greece dressed their children in the white kilt of Albanians Tosks [35]. Some decades ago, Coppée would observe that the traditional Albanian white kilt is as common in the streets of Athens as the private soldier’s uniform in London [36]. The identification of Albanians living abroad was made possible by their snowy dress. The memories of Maximillian are a case in point. According to him: “The world only hears of well-made, handsome Albanians who in the southern seaports of Europe saunter from coffee-house to cofee-house, clad in their fustanella and fez, and whose picturesque dress in masquarades gives a certain distinction even to the most insignificant dandy” [37]. The attempts to downplay the Albanian past might have reduced the usage of fustanella in Greece [38].

FOOTNOTES


[1] Ps-Scylax, Europe 1.28; Strabo, VIII, I, 3; Appian, Illyrica 1

[2] J. Bury, “Notes and Documents” in English Historical Review (1900) XV (LVIII): 288-291.

[3] The archeological findings on Illyrian seats have yielded some sculptures showing Illyrian with a kind of fustanella. More specifically, some sculptures unearthed in modern Durrës indicate that Illyrians wore fustanella.

[4]See note 29

[5] John Findling, Kimberly Pelle, Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympics Movement (Greenwood, 1996), p. 38

[6] John Cuthbert Lawson holds that ‘the Slavonic supremacy lasted at least until the end of tenth century; that thereafter a gradual fusion of the remnants of the Greek population with their conquerors began, but proceeded so slowly that at the beginning of the thirteenth century the ‘franks’, as the warriors of Western Christendom were popularly called, found Slavonic tribes in Elis and Laconia quite detached from the rest of population, acknowledging indeed the supremacy of the Byzantine government, but still employinh their own language and their own laws; and finally that the amalgamation of the two races was not complete even by the middle of the fifteenth century, fro the Turks at their conquest of Greece found several tribes of the Peloponnese, especially in the neighborhood of Mount Taygetus, still speaking a Slavonic tongue. (Modern Greek folklore and ancient Greek religion: A study in survivals, p. 26).

[7] Even though it’s hard to gauge the real extension of Slavs, there appears ample evidence that by the eighth century Slav influence became greatest in Greece. Following 764 a great plague was spread over the whole Greece. Its population suffered heavily and commenced to migrate towards Constandinople. W.A. Heurtley asserts: “Empty districts were thus left free to be colonized by the Slavs who now pressed southwards in great numbers than ever. In the words of the imperial historian, Cobnstantine Porphyrogenetius, ‘all the open country was Slavonized and became barbarous, when the plague was deveuuring the whole world’. According to W. Miller, this is the real explanation of the Slav colonization of Greece. Whatever be the truth, the Slavs had by now certainly spread widely over the Greek lands. So widespread were their settlements that in the eighth century the southern Balkan lands and mainland Greece were known as ‘Sclavinia’. (A short History of Greece from Early times to 1964, p. 41)

[8] Jack Davis, Susan Alcock, Sandy Pylos: An archaeological history from Nestor to Navarino, p. 215: What does remain from this period, however, are changes in the names of sites. “Avarino”, mentioned in De thematibus as the new name for Messenian Pylos, is the Slavic name for ‘place of maples’. In addition, nearby Sklavohori (Village of Slavs) indicates the settlement of a non-indigeneous, non-Greek population.

[9] John Van Antwerp Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (University of Michigan Press, 1991), p. 306: “Illyrians: An ancient Indo-European people dominating the western Balkans (what is now Dalmatia, Bosnia, Albania, Epirus), though conquered by Rome, until the Slavic invasions. They have survived in a much more restricted area as the Albanians”.

[10] Michael Grant, Rachel Ktizinger, Civilization of the ancient Mediterranean: Greece and Rome: Volume 1, (1988), p.203: “It is clear at least that Albanian descends from an ancient language of the Balkans, for it contains loanwords from…”. Nagendra Kr Singh,Abdul Mabud Khan, Encyclopaedia of the world Muslims: tribes, castes and communities: Volume 1, p.38:”The Albanian people are thought to be derived predominantly from Illyrians who inhabited the Dinaric region in classical and post-classical times”. Richard Horsley Osborne, East-Central Europe: an introductory geography, (1967), p. 24: “Albanian is apparently descended from the ancient Illyrian tongue”.

[11] See fig. 1, 2, 3

[12] G.G.Byron, The Works of Lord Byron: Complete in One Volume, (1826), p. 696

[13] Rennell Rodd, The customs and lore of Modern Greece, p.23 : “Their costume is notoriously picturesque. The Southern Albanians, for the most part, wear the white kilt or fustanella, embroidered jacked and gaiters, and showes with upturned pointed toes, a dress which was adopted throughout Greece at the time of the revolution as the national costume, and which replaced the loose blue or brown kniskerboxkers still retained by the islanders. A picturesque but fanciful legend records that this dress derives its origin from the tunic skirt of the Roman soldier, a colony of Praetorian guards having been established here in the time of Septimus Severus”.

[14] George Finlay, History of the Greek Revolution: Volume 1, (Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood & Sons, 1861), p.47: “The history of the Greek Revolution would often be obscure unless the importance of the Albanian element which pervaded military society in the Othoman empire is fully appreciated”. On the same vein, William Milligan Sloane asserts: “in a high sense they are the makers of modern Greece” (The Balkans: a laboratory of history (The Abingdon press, 1920), p. 40.

[15] Ducket Ferriman, East and west of Hellespont: memories of fifty years (J.Cape, Itd., 1926), p.116: It is perhaps not generally known that one-fifth of the area of modern Greece is peopled by Toskh Albanians. The islands of Salamis, Hydra and Spetzai, the nursery and headquarters of the Greek Navy, are wholly Albanian, and there are patches of homogeneous Albanian population in Boeotia, Argolis and Attica. This is notably the case in Liopessi, Spata and other villages at the back of Hymettus. Half Euboea is Albanian. Up to 1835, there was a Tribunal at Athens in which business was conducted in Shkipetar, owing to the prevalence of that tongue.

[16] Lumo Skëndo, Albanais et Slaves (Lausanne: Librairie Centrale des Nationalites, 1919), p. 25

[17] On another occasion Admiral Kunduriot learned that his ship’s officers had forbidden the seamen to speak Albanian among themselves. The admiral summoned the seamen on deck and asked them, “A kuvëndoni Shqip, more?” (O you, do you talk together in Albanian?). The sailors looked at one another, hardly knowing what to reply. One of them took courage, and answered, “We do talk together just a little, Admiral.” Kunduriot replied, “Go ahead and talk together in Albanian, for we are the ones who liberated Greece!” (Dituria January 1927, 86).

[18] Mercersburg quarterly review, Volume 8, p. 353:

[19] Aleksandr Aleskandrovich Vasilev, History of the Byzantine Empire, 324-1453: Volume 2 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1964), p. 615

[20] René Ristelhueber, A History of the Balkan Peoples (Sherman David Spector ed. and trans. 1971), p. 174.

[21] Andre Gerolymatos, The Balkan wars: conquest, revolution, and retribution from the Ottoman era to the twentieth century and beyond (Basic Books, 2002), p. 112

[22] The ethnicity of the so-called ‘klephts’ and ‘armatoli’ is not settled down properly. There are numerous evidences providing their Albanian origin. Many of them identified themselves as related to that of Albania. Jihn Davy, Notes and observations on the Ionian Islands and Malta: with some remarks on Constantinople and Turkey and on the system of quarantine (Cambridge University Press, Jan 2, 2012), p. 127: “The klepthes (the reputable robbers, as they esteemed themselves), of the mountains of Zante, and of the adjoining islands before enumerated, identified themselves with those of Albania, and are said, for many years, during the period of Venetian rule, to have taken common part with them”. Ivan Gavrilovich Golovin stated that Albanian kleftes (brigands) supported the Greeks, their co-religionists, in their war of independence, and distinguished themselves among the Palikares (The Nations of Russia and Turkey and Their Destiny, Elibron Classics, 2005, p. 137). Still more, a young English volunteer who took part in the service of “Greek” cause equates Armatoli with Albanian. Sketches of modern Greece, by a young English volunteer in the Greek service, Volume 1, p. 406). Even the famous Pallikars “wore the Albanian dress, and were indeed very many of them of the Albanian race” (The customs and lore of modern Greece, Rennell Rodd, 1892 p. 224).

[23] Gerolymatos, 112

[24] William St Clair, That Greece Might Still be Free: Philhellenes in the War of Independence (Open Book Publishers, Nov 1, 200), p. 232

[25] According to him “fustannela is nearly discarded; it is both incovenient and costly; to make on of the proper fullness requires forty yards of cotton cloth. (In the levand, travels in Palestine, Lebanon and Syria, p. 500).

[26] Blackwood’s magazine: volume 246, 1939, p.

[27] Michael Skafidas, “Fabricating Greekness: From fustanella to the glossy page”, in Eugenia Paulicelli, The Fabric of Cultures: Fashion, Identity, and Globalization, (Routledge, 2009), p.148

[28] Misha Glenny , The Balkans, Nationalism, War and the Great Powers, p. 33

[29] Dilys Powell, Remember Greece (Hodder and Stoughton, 1941), p. 178: “It has sometimes been argued that the people living in Greece today are not descended from the Greeks of ancent times. A country dominated by Romans, Franks, and Turks in turn, invaded by Slavs and Albanians, Goths and Vandals, the perpetual battleground of Europeans and Asiatics, a country buried for centuries beneath the dead weight of conquest (…)Nobody except a fanatical nationalist would, I imagine, deny that the Greeks of today are a mixed race”.

[30] Donald MacGillivray Nicol, Studies in late Byzantine history and prosopography (Reprints, 1986), p. 228: “The ancient Greeks were, after all, of very mixed ancestry; and there can be no doubt that the Byzantine Greeks, both before and after the Slav occupation, were even more heterogenous”.

[31] Bayard Taylor would notice that: “…not one-fifth of the present population can with justice be called Greeks. The remainder are Slavonians, Albanians and Turks, with a slight admixture of Venetian blood.” (Travels in Greece and Russia, 1872, p. 261)

[32] Curiosly enough, he regarded Greeks as being largely descendants of Slavs. “Though the Greeks are descended in part from the people who inhabited their country in ancient times, and thoug they speak a modern form of the old Greek language, it is certain that the present inhabitants are a much mixed race. They are largely Slav, but hold a strong feeling for the great past of their country. This gives them an unusally strong national rallying point” (A school History of the Great war, p. 27)

[33] George Rolleston, Report on Smyrna (Great Britain. War Office), p.29

[34] Bernard Newman, The new Europe, 1972, p.366: “The Albanians are the descedants of one of the oldest of the Balkan races…”. Albert E. McKinley, A school history of the great war, p.27: The Albanian people are descended from the most ancient of all the races in the Balkan peninsula; their language is the oldest language spoken in Europe”

[35] Finlay, 48

[36] Henry Coppée, The classic and the beautiful from the literature of three thousand years (Juvenile Nonfiction, 1895), p. 395: “The fustanella, or white kilt, of the traditional Albanian is as common in the streets of Athens as the private soldier’s uniform in London”

[37] Recollections of My Life: Messina. Palermo. Syracuse. The Balearic Islands, p. 206

[38] While speaking to the role of Albanians, Edward Seymour Forster hammered home: “…when Greece rose against her oppressors, they provided some of the most brilliant chiefs and the toughest soldiers and fully earned their right to share in the dearly-won liberty of Greece. Some of Greece’s most prominent leaders, for example, Admiral Kounouriotis and M.Zaimis, the two presidents of the Republic, have belonged to families of Albanian extraction. The picturesque Albanian dress with its pleated fustannela has been adopted as the Greek national costume and is worn by the Evzones of the Greek army. Under King Otho prominent statemen wore the fustannela, and M. Gennadius, for so lonf the Greek minister at the Court of St. James, maintained that it was the proper of a Greek diplomatist abroad; as late as 1900 the Deputy for Tripolitsa appeared in the Chamber in the national garb. (A short history of modern Greece, 1821-1956, Methuen, 1960, p. 245)

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1158

Post by Zeus10 » Mon Jul 16, 2012 8:11 pm

Tre shtesa mund te beja per permiresim:
1. Artikulli duhet ilustruar me fotografi.
2. Duhet provuar qe fustanella eshte nje veshje mbareshqiptare dhe per kete duhen sjelle fotografite dhe citimet e nevojshme.
3. Duhet shmangur ideja qe luftetaret "greke dhe romake te vjeter", duke qene te nje race "tjeter", nuk mund te provohet qe e vishnin fustanellen, meqenese nuk kemi asnje mbetje te saj.
The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1159

Post by ALBPelasgian » Mon Jul 16, 2012 10:00 pm

Zeus10 wrote:Tre shtesa mund te beja per permiresim:
1. Artikulli duhet ilustruar me fotografi.
2. Duhet provuar qe fustanella eshte nje veshje mbareshqiptare dhe per kete duhen sjelle fotografite dhe citimet e nevojshme.
3. Duhet shmangur ideja qe luftetaret "greke dhe romake te vjeter", duke qene te nje race "tjeter", nuk mund te provohet qe e vishnin fustanellen, meqenese nuk kemi asnje mbetje te saj.
T'falemnderit Zeus!

1. Po ne web-in tim e kam shoqeruar thuajse secilin paragraf me ndonje fotografi a pikture, duke dhene pasqyren se kjo veshje eshte mbareshqiptare;

2. Citatet sa i perket veriut kane qene me te veshtira per t'u gjetur; sidoqofte do ta plotesoj kete ne rastin e pare kur te gjej (Arthur Evans flet vetem per fustanellen ne Hercegovinen sllave; me nevojitet dicka e ngjashme por qe flet per fustanellen si veshje e shqiptareve ne veri)...

3. Ideja qe dua te pasqyroj ne artikull eshte qe fustanella ishte qe ne krye te heres ilire, por me pas ajo u perhap gjithandej ku arriti ndikimi ilir.

Artikulli eshte ne procesim, keshtu qe do ta permiresoj edhe me tej.
Ne sot po hedhim faren me emrin Bashkim,
Qe neser te korrim frutin me emrin Bashkim!

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1160

Post by Arbëri » Sat Aug 11, 2012 10:10 pm

Maurice Trumbert, 1913 – reportazh për Shkodrën

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Duke dalë nga lugina ku ndodhet Cetinjie nëpërmjet rrugës që çon në Skutari të Shqipërisë, shumë shpejt mbërrijmë përballë një panorame të mrekullueshme, pamja e papritur e së cilës në çarjen e beftë të maleve rrethuese shkakton mbi tërë ata që e shohin për herë të parë një përshtypje të gjallë.
Liqeni, rrethuar nga maja ku një pjesë ruajnë gjatë stolinë e tyre të borës shfaqet në një horizont thellësie prej shtatë a tetëqind metrash, mes një kuadri ndërtuar nga faqet e çrregullta të maleve ballkanike. Shpaloset krejt lirshëm dhe gjendesh i përfshirë në të nëpërmjet një zbritjeje mjaft të gjatë, që çon në fshatin e bukur malazez të Rjekës, mbi lumin që mban po këtë emër. Pamja e tij është e ashpër; malet që e rrethojnë kanë në shumicën e tyre faqe shkëmbore të zhveshura, por në dalje të Rjekës, ishuj të bukur pyllorë në terrene të thyer ruajnë një freski këndellëse dhe vetë Skutari, ku arrijmë pas gjashtë orë udhëtimi, zgjatohet i ngeshëm në skaj të shtresës së gjerë ujore, si një sulltaneshë e lodhur nga ndriçimi dhe nxehtësia.
Kushdo që ka udhëtuar në Turqi e sheh veten në mjedisin e njohur me të hyrë në qytet. Ja tek has kalldrëme të çrregullta, të mirëmbajtura keq, si pothuaj kudo në perandori; po ja edhe mizëri e shtëpive aq tërheqëse për syrin në larminë e tyre të pafund, me ngjyrime të gjalla, me parregullsinë e tyre artistike, ballkone të drunjtë zbukuruar gjithë lule, mbi të cilat teshat e ndera shumëngjyrëshe, tek po thahen, i japin mjedisit një ton të gjallë e të ngrohtë. Ngado kopshte të mbushur me bimësi haralisëse, falë përafrisë së vetë liqenit dhe nxehtësisë së një vere të ngopur me lagështirë. Blerimi vjen e shuhet buzë kënetave, nga ku ngrihen përpjetë, sikurse në krejt shtrirjen e liqenit, shpendë të shumtë ujorë dhe vetë Skutari, në tërësinë e tij shfaqet si një korije gjigande. Në të djathtë, kështjella që sundon Bajnën (Bunën), lumë i shkurtër e i shpejtë që shkon nga liqeni fill e në Adriatik dhe që, i këndshëm e i lehtë në zbritje, është gati i pamundur në ngjitje.
Me Damaskun, kryeqyteti i Shqipërisë është pa kurrfarë mëdyshje qyteti ku haset në Turqinë evropiane ngjyra lokale më e theksuar, dhe sidomos larmia më e jashtëzakontë e kostumeve që hasen në botë. Sikur të ulesh, ditën e tregut, në një tarracë që bie mbi njërën nga rrugët që çojnë në të, mund të rrish e të kalosh një pasdite të tërë duke këqyrur e soditur tërë atë parakalim veshjesh që sfidon çdo lloj përshkrimi. Një pjesë e këtyre veshjeve janë të zbukuruara në mënyrë të mahnitshme, përbërë nga mëndafshe, ar e argjend, si dhe nga stoli të tilla që janë fryt i një pune shpesh me shije të përkryer. Do përmendja në mënyrë të veçantë mantelet e kuq qëndisur në ar të grave të krishtera, që i mbajnë vetëm ato, monumente të vërtetë të një forme të hijshme, dhe me një vlerë artistike të pamohueshme.
Përgjithësisht, kostumi femëror është i rëndë dhe nuk lë ndonjë mbresë: përbëhet nga një shumicë tumanesh e xhokesh veshur një mbi një, brenda së cilave varroset pakthyeshmërisht e pamëshirshmërisht çdo lloj trupi i brishtë. Tek burrat, përkundrazi, linjat e trupit mbeten të pacenuara falë xhokes së hapur mbi këmishën e bardhë dhe falë atyre pantallonave ngjitur pas kofshëve (tirqet) që të kujtojnë ato të pagëve të Mesjetës, të cilat përfundonin me mbathina të sheshta (opinga) si ato pulenat me majuc që kërkonin vetëm një shputë të përkryer. Qeleshja e bardhë, brezi shumëngjyrësh, ku ngjishen armë të bukura gjithë serm plotësojnë këtë veshje që nxjerr aq mirë në pah hajthmërinë dhe elegancën e formave tipike të Shqiptarit. Fustanella, që mbahet po ashtu edhe në Greqi, një lloj fustani me pala të pafundme, si të një valltari, është në të kundërt më pak e hijshme dhe valëzimi i saj të bën të mendosh në mënyrë të pashmangshme për ato balerinat e Operës sonë.
Raca shqiptare është, nuk do thosha më e bukura, por më e shkëlqyera e globit. Burra e gra kanë tipare me një finesë e rregullsi që nuk haset pothuaj askund, në mos te Arabët. Sytë janë të mëdhenj e të zgjatuar, ngjyra e lëkurës me një bardhësi të qumësht, vezakshmëria e fytyrës nuk ka të sharë, hunda, klasikmërisht e drejtë dhe tek burrat, goja zbukuruar nga një mustak i zi i hollë që lë të duken dhëmbë rruazorë. Natyrisht, është mjaft e rrallë të mund të gjykosh - thjesht nisur nga sa sheh - për fytyrën dhe hijeshinë e një vashe të mbuluar krejt me perçe dhe brenda një veshjeje valëvitëse pa formë; por një ditë, kur dy çifte shqiptarë të sapo martuar u shfaqën në hotelin e Raguzës, ç’të çuditur që bëra tek pashë të nisen të nesërmen drejt Evropës dy gra të reja të një bukurie të rrallë, të cilat kishin zëvendësuar kostumin e tyre kombëtar me fustane evropiane të bëra enkas për trupat më të bukur në botë.
Shqiptari është i shkathët e punëtor: ata që traktati i Berlinit i aneksoi tek Mali i Zi, janë pak a shumë të vetmit që merren me tregti e artizanat. Veç prodhimit të veshjeve, ata merren me fabrikimin e stolive prej argjendi, aq artistikisht të përpunuara, si dhe të armëve të një modeli të bukur. Merren gjithashtu me bujqësi, dhe rrethinat e Skutarit janë të pasura në misër.
Arnautët, siç i quajnë Turqit, apo Skipetarët, siç e quajnë veten ata, janë jashtëzakonisht sherretë, ziliqarë, kryeneçë e hakmarrës. Nuk ka vend ku gjakmarrja të sundojë në mënyrë aq tiranike; në asnjë vend, madje as në Korsikë, ajo nuk ushtrohet me aq fanatizëm se sa në ato male. Dhe nuk merret hak për një krim vetëm në kurriz të atij që e ka bërë, por shkohet deri tek i biri dhe prindërit e tij; madje shkohet gjer te fshati, fisi. Një hollësi karakteristike: shkohet e zgjidhet në një fshat si viktimë reprezaljesh djaloshi më i pashëm, me qëllim që të ndëshkohen krejt banorët duke u asgjësuar atë për të cilin ata ndiheshin krenarë; sepse bukuria njerëzore vlerësohet shumë prej tyre. Kurse në raste të tjera, përzgjedhja bëhet rastësisht. Para njëzet vjetësh, kuzhinieri i një prej konsujve tanë, njeri paqësor e në moshë të pjekur, sheh një mbrëmje tek po binte nata t’i shfaqen para dy nga bashkëpatriotët e tij, të cilët e vënë në dijeni se i vëllai është duke vdekur dhe se janë ngarkuar ta shoqërojnë pranë tij. Ai u bie pas. Me të dalë jashtë qytetit, bashkëpatriotët e mbërthejnë për shpatullash e i thonë: “Lutju Zotit, se do vdesësh”. “Po përse? – pyet gjynahqari i trembur. – Sepse një nga fisi yt ka vrarë babanë tonë. Ti u zgjodhe nga fati për të shpaguar gjakun e derdhur.” Dhe ia ngulin thikat në brinjë, duke e lënë mes rrugës mbytur në gjak, ku e gjetën të nesërmen ende gjallë, duke marrë frymë.
Këto vrasje janë të vazhdueshme, duke sjellë të tjera e të tjera, pa ua parë fundin kurrë. Gjë e çuditshme, Shqiptarët katolikë sikur nuk duken më pak të zellshëm për kësi lloj krimesh, dhe priftërinjtë, tek të cilët luten, nuk arrijnë t’i bindin për të hequr dorë, ngaqë gjakmarrja është për ta një akt tërësisht i natyrshëm e i ligjshëm. [...]
Në Skutari, i huaji nuk ka asnjë rrezik; por prapë, duhet treguar kujdes dhe, në do të dalësh jashtë pas perëndimit të diellit, duhet të shoqërohesh nga ndonjë kava (zaptie), sepse krimet e kryera natën përgjithësisht bëhen për shpagim personal apo gjakmarrje; por e mira është të shmangen natën gjendje të tilla të pakëndshme. Po ashtu, do ishte mirë të mos depërtohet në thellësi të vendit pa një rekomandim të posaçëm nga ana e një Shqiptari që respektohet e i dëgjohet zëri; dhe kur ke një rekomandim të tillë, nuk ka kurrfarë problemi. Ashtu si edhe në Montenegro, pak vjedhje bëhen apo vrasje me qëllim grabitjeje; gjaku derdhet ose ngaqë bëhen reprezalje, ose pastaj thjesht nga fanatizmi apo nga patriotizmi. Dhe, a mund të pritet vallë po aq nga bashkëqytetarët tanë gjoja të civilizuar?
Kohët e fundit është folur vazhdimisht për vendin e Skipetarëve. Pa dashur të futem këtu në politikë, them se vendi është i destinuar të njohë ngjarje të rëndësishme. Ai do të çlirohet nga zgjedha turke, por Austriakët e Italianët rrinë dhe e përgjojnë dhe, për arsye të ndryshme, Shqipëria është përgjithësisht një gjah i lakmueshëm. Dikur vendi i ka përkitur njëpasnjë Maqedonëve, Romakëve, perandorëve të Orientit, Normandëve të Napolit, Venecianëve, Hungarezëve, etj. por pa mundur tërë këta popuj të lënë gjurmë, të ndryshojnë gjuhën e tij dhe të mposhtin banorët që e përbëjnë. A do të njohë më në fund vendi përparimin, që deri më sot i ka munguar? A do t’i shohim një ditë këta Shqiptarë të braktisin kostumin e tyre popullor të Mesjetës për të veshur uniforma rojesh e drejtuesish që mund t’u vinë në krye një ditë? Mbase pse jo, në fund të fundit; por do ndodhë atëherë pikërisht ajo që kanë njohur shumë vende: kur të jetë e kollajtë për të udhëtuar brenda vendit, nuk do ketë më asgjë tipike e piktoreske për të admiruar.
http://www.zemrashqiptare.net/news/id-2 ... C3%AB.html
“Nëse doni të zbuloni historinë para Krishtit dhe
shkencat e asaj kohe, duhet të studioni gjuhën shqipe !"
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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1161

Post by Arbëri » Sat Aug 11, 2012 10:35 pm

Fitorja e Shkodres

Gjermani Woodoat , foto nga shekulli XV
(I treti djathtas eshte ne fustanelle)
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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1162

Post by Arbëri » Sun Aug 12, 2012 3:06 pm

1.i panjohur, 2. Et’hem Vlora, 3. një luftëtar kosovar,
4. Gjenerali De Veer, 5. i panjohur. Dhjetor 1913

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1163

Post by Arbëri » Sun Aug 12, 2012 3:11 pm

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1164

Post by Arbëri » Sun Aug 12, 2012 3:13 pm

Nje familje nga Janina

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1165

Post by Arbëri » Sun Aug 12, 2012 6:53 pm

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1166

Post by Mallakastrioti » Sun Aug 26, 2012 8:58 pm

Kur piktori sllav Paja Jovanoviç sillte skena shqiptaresh geg me fustanella shume here eshte hedhur dyshimi qe ato ishin thjesht frute te imagjinates se tij, pasi mendohej se fustanella nuk ka ekzistuar nder shqiptaret e veriut, pra midis gegeve. Por kjo teze rrezohet katerciperisht pasi ne kete tablo shihet qarte elementi geg me fustanelle dhe ketu e ndeshim shume larg prej trojeve shqiptare. Keta jane shqiptar geg mercenar me veshjen karakteristike shqiptare fustanellen.Shqiptar geg ne Egjipt dhe piktori nuk eshte Paja Jovanoviç.

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1167

Post by Hymniarber » Tue Sep 04, 2012 6:35 pm

TEST

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Fere libenter homines id quod volunt credunt
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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1168

Post by Arbëri » Sat Sep 08, 2012 7:30 pm

NAIM FRASHËRI
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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1169

Post by Arbëri » Sun Sep 09, 2012 7:09 pm

ABDYL FRASHËRI

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Re: FUSTANELLA

#1170

Post by Iriqi » Mon Sep 24, 2012 7:33 pm

Théodore Géricault - SOLDAT ALBANAIS, UN YATAGAN A LA CEINTURE

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:arrow: Moderuar nga stafi: per arsyen qe, kur kerkon te publikosh nje link mund te gjesh nje menyre tjeter per tu shprehur, dhe jo menyren qe kishit perdorur...

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