"Moreover, you scorned our people, and compared the Albanese to sheep, and according to your custom think of us with insults. Nor have you shown yourself to have any knowledge of my race. Our elders were Epirotes, where this Pirro came from, whose force could scarcely support the Romans. This Pirro, who Taranto and many other places of Italy held back with armies. I do not have to speak for the Epiroti. They are very much stronger men than your Tarantini, a species of wet men who are born only to fish. If you want to say that Albania is part of Macedonia I would concede that a lot more of our ancestors were nobles who went as far as India under Alexander the Great and defeated all those peoples with incredible difficulty. From those men come these who you called sheep. But the nature of things is not changed. Why do your men run away in the faces of sheep?"
Letter from Skanderbeg to the Prince of Taranto ▬ Skanderbeg, October 31 1460

EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

Këtu mund të flisni mbi historinë tonë duke sjellë fakte historike për ndriçimin e asaj pjese të historisë mbi të cilen ka rënë harresa e kohës dhe e njerëzve.

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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#316

Post by Arbëri » Fri Dec 25, 2009 4:22 pm

Myths and Realities in Eastern Europe
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By Walter Kolarz
Published 1946
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273 pages

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“Nëse doni të zbuloni historinë para Krishtit dhe
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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#317

Post by ALBPelasgian » Fri Dec 25, 2009 6:16 pm

EPEIKUS or EPITITJS ("H«ipo*: Eth. 'HweifWTTjs, Epirotes: Adj. 'RirtiptjmKds, Epiroticus), was the name given to the country lying between the Ionian sea and the chain of Pindns, and extending from the Acroceraanian promontory and the boundaries of Illyria and Macedonia on the noith to the Ambracian gulf on the south. The word Ijxapos signified the mainland, and was the name originally given to the whole of the western coast of Greece from the Acroceraunian promontory as far as the entrance of the Corinthian gulf, in contradistinction to Corcyra and the Cephallenian islands. In this sense the word was used not only by Homer (Strab. x. p. 451; Horn. //. ii. 685, Od. ziv. 97), but even as late as the tune of the Peloponnesian War. (Thuc. i. 5.) Epiras, in its more limited extent, is a wild and mountainous country. The mountains run in a general direction from north to south, and have in all ages been the resort of semi-civilised and robber tribes. The valleys, though frequent, are not extensive, and do not produce sufficient com for the support of the inhabitants. The most extensive and fertile plain is that of Joannina, in which the oracle of Dodona was probably situated, but even at the present day Jodnnimi iccaives a large quantity of its flour from Theasaly, and of its vegetables and fruit from the territory of Aria on the Ambracian gulf. Epirus has been in all times a pastoral and not an agricultural country. Its fine oxen and horses, its shepherds, and its breed of Molossian dogs, were celebrated in antiquity. (Pind. Nem. iv. 82; " quanto majores berbida tauros non habet Epirus," Ov. Met. viii. 282; " Eliadum palmas Epiros equarum," Virg. Georg. i. 57; " domus alta Molossis personuit canibus," Hot. Sat ii. 6. 114; Virg. Georg. iii. 405.) The Epirots were not collected in towns, as was the case with the population in Greece Proper. It is expressly mentioned by Scylaz (p. 28) that the Epirots dwelt in villages, which was more suitable to their mode of life; and it was probably not till the time when the Molossian kings had extended their dominion over the whole country, and had introduced among them Grecian habits and civilisation, that towns began to be built. It is in accordance with this that we find no coins older than those of Pyrrhus.

Along the coast of Epirus southward, from the Acroceraunian promontory, a lofty and ragged range of mountains extends. [ceraunii Montes ] Hence the Corinthians founded no colony upon the coast of Epirus at the time when they planted so many settlements upon the coast of Acarnania, and founded Apollonia and Epidamnus farther north. Of the mountains in the interior the names of hardly any are preserved with the exception of Tomarus or Tmarus above Dodona. [dodona.] Of the rivers the most important are: the Abachthus, flowing into the Ambracian gulf, and considered to form the boundary between Epirus and Hellas Proper; the Celydnus, flowing into the Ionian sea between Oricum and the Acroceraunian promontory, and forming probably the northern boundary of Epirus; and the Thyamis, Acheron, and Chakadrus, all flowing into the Ionian sea more to the south.

Epirus was inhabited by various tribes, which were not regarded by the Greeks themselves as members of the Hellenic race. Accordingly Epirus was not a part of Hellas, which was supposed to begin at Ambracia. [hellas.] Some of the tribes however were closely related to the Greeks, and may be looked upon as semi-Hellenic Thucydides, it is true, tieats both the Molossians and Thesprotians as barbaric (ii 80); but these two tribes at all events were not entirely foreign to the Greeks like the Thracians and Illyrians; and accordingly Herodotus places the Thesprotians in Hellas (ii. 56), and mentions the Molossian Alcon among the Hellenic suitors of Agarista (vi. 127). It would appear that towards the north the Epirots became blended with the Macedonians and Illyrians, and towards the south with the Hellenes.

The northern Epirots, extending from the Macedonian frontier as far as Corcyra, resembled the Macedonians in their mode of cutting the hair, in their language and dress, and in many other particulars. (Strab. vii. p. 827.) Strabo also relates (£c.) that some of the tribes spoke two languages, — u fact which proves the difference of the races iu the country and also their close connection.

According to Theopompus, who lived iu the fourth century B. c, the number of Epirot tribes was fouiteen (ap. Strab. vii. pp. 323, 324). Their names, as we gather from Strabo, were the Chaones, Thesproti, Cassopaei, Molossi, Amphilochi, Athamanes, Aethices, Tymphaei, Parauaei, Talares, Atintanes, Orestae, Pelagones, and Elimiotae. (Strab. viii, pp. 824,326, x. p. 434.) Of these, the Orestae, Pelagones, and Elimiotae were situated east of Mt. Pindns, and were subsequently annexed to Macedonia, to which they properly belonged. In like manner, the Athamanes, Aethices, and Talares, who occupied Pindus, were united to Thessaly in the time of Strabo. The Atintanes and Parauaei, who bordered upon Illyria, were also separated from Epiras.

The three chief Epirot tribes were the Chaones, Thesproti, and Molossi. The Chaones, who were at one time the most powerful of the three, and who are said to have ruled over the whole country (Strab. vii. p. 324), inhabited in historical times the district upon the coast from the Acroceraunian country to the river Thyamis, which separated them from the Thesprotians (Thuc i. 46). The Thesproti extended along the coast from the Thyamis beyond the Acheron to the confines ot the Cassopaei, and in the interior to the boundaries of the territory of Dodona, which in ancient times was regarded as a part of Thesprotia. [dodona.] The Cassopaei, whom some writers called a Thesprotian tribe, reached along the coast, as far as the Ambracian gulf. The Molossi, who became subsequently the rulers of Epiras, originally inhabited only a narrow strip of country, extending from the Ambracian gulf between the Cassopaei and Ambraciotae, and subsequently between the Thesprotians and Athamanes, northwards as fur as the Dodonaea, (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. pp. 178, 179.) The Molossi subsequently obtained possession of the Cassopaea and the Dodonaea, and their country reached from the river Aous on the north to the Ambracian gulf on the south.

The most ancient inhabitants of Epiras are said to have been Pelasgians. Dodona is represented as an oracle of the Pelasgians. [dodona.] Chaonia is also called Pelasgian; and the Chaones are said, like the Selli at Dodona, to have been interpreters of the oracle of Zeus. (Steph. B. s.v. Xaoi'ia.) There appears to have been an ethnical connection between the ancient inhabitants of Epirus and some of the tribes on the opposite coast of Italy. The Chones, on the gulf of Tarentnm, are apparently the same people as the Chaones; and although we find no mention of the Thesprotians in Italy, we have there a town Fandosia, and a river Acheron, as in Epirus. There are good reasons for supposing that the Italian Oenotrians, to whom the Chonians belonged, were of the same race as the Epirots. (Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 57.) [oknotria.] If we were to accept the statement of Aristotle that Dodonawas at one time inhabited by the people then called Graeci, but now Hellenes (Meteor, i. 14), Epirus most be regarded as the original abode of the Hellenes ; but this statement is in opposition to the commonly received opinions of the Greeks, who placed the original home of the Hellenes in Thessaly. It may be that the Pelasgians in Epirus bore the name of Graeci, and carried the name to the opposite coast of Italy; which would account for the Romans and Italians in general giving the name of Graeci to all the Hellenes, looking upon the Hellenes who subsequently founded colonies in Italy as the same people. (Niebuhr, vol. iii. p. 451.) But, however this may be, the inhabitants of Epirus exercised, at an early period, considerable influence upon Greece. Of this the wide- spread reputation of the oracle of Dodona is a proof. The Thessalians, who conquered the country named after them, are represented as a Thesprotian tribe. [thkssaua.] According to the common tradition, Neoptolemus or Pyrrhus, son of Achilles, settled in Epirus after his return from Troy, accompanied by Helenus, son of Priam He transmitted his dominions to his son Molossus, from whom the Molossian kings traced their descent. (Diet. ofBiogr. t. vv. Neoptolemus and Molossus.)

The chief Greek settlement in Epirus was the flourishing Corinthian colony of Ambracia, upon the gulf called after it. [ambracia.] At a later period, probably between the time of Thucydides and Demosthenes, some Grecian settlers must have found their way into Theeprotia, since Demosthenes mentions Pandosia, Buchetia, and Elaea, as Elcian colonies (de Halonn. p. 84).

The Epirot tribes were independent of one another, though one tribe sometimes exercised a kind of supremacy over a greater or a smaller number. Such a supremacy may have been exercised in ancient times by the Thesprotians, who possessed the oracle. In the Peloponnesian War the Chaonians enjoyed a higher reputation than the rest (Thuc ii. SO), and it is probably to this period that Strabo refers when he says that the Chaonians once ruled over all Epirus (vii. p. 323). The importance of the Chaonians at this period is shown by a line of Aristophanes (Equit. 78, with Schol.). It must not, however, be inferred that the Chaonians possessed any firm hold over the other tribes. The power of the Molossian kings, of which we shall speak presently, rested upon a different basis.

Originally each tribe was governed by a king. In the time of the Persian ware the Molossians were governed by a king called Admetus, who waa living with the simplicity of a village chief when ThemiBtoclea came to him as a suppliant. (Thuci. 136.) Tharyps, also called Tharypas or Arrhybas, the son or grandson of Admetus, was a minor at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, and was educated at Athens: he is said to have been the first to introduce among his subjects Hellenic civilisation. (Thuc ii. 80; Paus. i. 11. § 1; Justin, xvii. 3; Plut

Pyrrh. 1.) The kingly government always continued among the Molossians, probably in consequence of their power being very limited; for we are told that the king and people were accustomed to meet at Passaron, the ancient Molossian capital, to swear obedience to the laws. (Aristot Polil. v. 11 ;• Plut Pyrrh. 5.) But among the Chaonians and Thesprotians the kingly government had been abolished before the Peloponnesian War: the chief magistrates of the Chaonians were selected from a particular family (<k Too kpxM0'> 7«Vo«s, Thuc. ii. 80). After the Peloponnesian War the power of the Molossians increased, till at length Alexander, the brother of Olympias, who married Philip of Macedon, extended his dominion over most of the Epirot tribes, and took the title of king of Epirus. (Diod. xvi. 72, 91; Strab. vi. p. 280.) Alexander, who died B. C. 326, was succeeded by Aeacides, and Aeacides by Alcetas, after whom the celebrated Pyrrhus became king of Epirus, and raised the kingdom to its greatest splendour. He removed the seat of government from Passaron to Ambracia, which was now for the first time annexed to the dominions of the Epirot kings. Pyrrhus was succeeded in B.C. 272 by his son, Alexander II., who was followed in succession by his two sons, Pyrrhus II. and Ptolemy. (For the history of these kings, see the Diet, of Biogr.) With the death of Ptolemy, between B. c 239 and 229, the family of Pyrrhus became extinct, whereupon a republican form of government was established, which continued till the conquest of Macedonia by the Romans, B. c. 168. Having been accused of favouring Perseus, tho Roman senate determined that all the towns of Epirus should be destroyed, and the inhabitants reduced to slavery. This cruel order was carried into execution by Aemilins Paulus, who, having previously placed garrisons in the 70 towns of Epirus, razed them all to the ground in one day, and carried away 150,000 inhabitants as slaves. (Polyb. ap. Slrai. vii. p. 322; Liv. xlv. 34; Plut Aemil. Paul 29.) From the effects of this terrible blow Epirus never recovered. In the time of Strabo the country was still a scene of desolation, and the inhabitants had only ruins and villages to dwell in. (Strab. vii. p. 327.) Nicopolis, founded by Augustus in commemoration of his victory off Actium, was the chief city of Epirus under the Roman empire. Both this city and Buthrotum had the dignity of Roman colonies. Epirus formed a province under the Romans, and in the time of Ptolemy was separated from Achaia by the river Achelous. (Ptol. iii. 14.) Epirus now forms part of Albania. The Albanians are probably descendants of the ancient Illyrians, who took possession of the depopulated country under the Roman or the early Byzantine empire. On the conquest of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, a member of the celebrated Byzantine family of Comnenus established an independent dynasty in Epirus; and the despots of Albania, as they were called, continued far two centuries only second in power to the emperors of Constantinople. The last of these rulers, George Castriot, resisted for more than 20 years the whole forces of the Ottoman empire; and it was not till his death in 1466 that Albania was annexed to the Turkish dominions.

The chief towns in Epirus were : —

1. In Chaonia. Upon the road near the coast from N. to S.: Palakste; Ciiimaeba; Phoenice; ButhHotum ; Cestbia, also called Ilium or Trqja, in the district Cestrine. [ces'trime.] West of this road, upon the coast: Onchesmus ; Cabsiopb.

Kast of the road in the interior: Piianote; Heli

CRAHON.

2. In Thesprotia. Upon the road leading from Cestria southwards: Ecboea (?); Pakdo9ia, on the Acheron; Elatkeia or Ei.atf.ia; CAmove; 'nioopolis. West of this road, upon the coast: Stbota; Chkimf.rium; Torthe; Boohaetcum; Elaea. Between this road and the coast: GitaNab; Ephyka, afterwards called Cichyrus. In the interior: Euuymenae (?); Issoria; Batiae(?).

8. In Molossia. From N. to S.: Photice; TeoMon; DoDonA; Passakoh; Chalcis; Phylace;

~Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography ~ by Sir William Smith page 832, 1865
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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#318

Post by Mallakastrioti » Fri Dec 25, 2009 8:59 pm

Nga libri:"Ducae, Michaelis Ducae nepotis, Historia byzantina, Volumi 20-21...Di Doukas,Immanuel Bekker,Ismael Boulliau:




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Ndoshta eshte per temen e arvaniteve kjo sepse thote qe Morea eshte e banuar nga Shqipot ne kohe te E.Dukes


Pak a shume thote:Morea ku nis Peleponezi banuar nga Shqiptaret...Phranzes lib. 3 cap.21,ka permendur ose ka thirrur Peleponezi Shqiptar.
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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#319

Post by ALBPelasgian » Fri Dec 25, 2009 9:03 pm

Mallakastër, po munde i bëj një përkthim tekstit të mësipërm! :P
Ne sot po hedhim faren me emrin Bashkim,
Qe neser te korrim frutin me emrin Bashkim!

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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#320

Post by Mallakastrioti » Fri Dec 25, 2009 9:23 pm

ALBPelasgian wrote:Mallakastër, po munde i bëj një përkthim tekstit të mësipërm! :P

U mundova ta perktheje pak a shume Alb....por nuk e njoh kaq mire latinishten dhe mund te bej ndonje gabim,por besoj se pak a shume thote kete teksti.
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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#321

Post by Mallakastrioti » Fri Dec 25, 2009 9:58 pm

Dicka tjeter rreth Bizantit:"Theophylacti Simocattae ... Historiae Mauricii Tiberii Imp. Lib. VIII ...
Di Theophylactus (Simocatta),Georgius Sphrantzes,Georgius Trapezuntius"-1604

1)Theophylact Simocatta (Greek: Θεοφύλακτος Σιμοκάτ(τ)ης - Theophylaktos Simokat(t)es) was an early 7th-century Byzantine historiographer, arguably ranking as the last historian of Antiquity.

2)George Sphrantzes (also Phrantzes or Phrantza or Frantzis, Greek: Γεώργιος Φραντζής, 1401-c. 1478) was a late Byzantine Greek historian.

3)Georgius Trapezuntius =George of Trebizond (1395 – 1484), Greek philosopher and scholar, one of the pioneers of the revival of letters in the Western world.


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Ky tekst mendoj duhet studiuar mire sepse kemi te bejme ne kohen e Mikel Paleologut.(Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos (1223 – Costantinopoli, 11 dicembre 1282)....edhe personazhi tjeter qe lexohet ne tekst Manfredus Friderici II(Manfredi di Hohenstaufen, o Manfredi di Svevia (Venosa, 1232 – Benevento, 26 febbraio 1266), fu re di Sicilia.) kane jetuar ne te njejten periudhe dhe flitet pra per vitet 1200 dhe Shqiptaret thuhet ne tekst kane pase banuar deri ne Peleponez...(Kane rendesi datat dhe vitet),
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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#322

Post by Zeus10 » Fri Dec 25, 2009 10:16 pm

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ALBPelasgian wrote:Mallakastër, po munde i bëj një përkthim tekstit të mësipërm! :P
Ajo perkthehet:
Morea ose rajoni i Peloponesit i banuar prej shqiptareve sic deshmon Phranzezi, i cili vete e quan Peloponezi shqiptar.

po e perkthej dhe ne anglisht

The region of Morea or differently called Peloponnesus, inhabited by Albanians according to Phranzez, who himself was calling it: 'Albanian Peloponesus'.
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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#323

Post by Arbëri » Sat Dec 26, 2009 12:49 am

The History of Rome
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By Thomas Arnold
Published 1868
D. Apple ton & compamy
670 pages

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“Nëse doni të zbuloni historinë para Krishtit dhe
shkencat e asaj kohe, duhet të studioni gjuhën shqipe !"
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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#324

Post by Arbëri » Sat Dec 26, 2009 12:52 am

Greek Horizons
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By Helen Day Hill Miller
Published 1961
Scribner
255 pages

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shkencat e asaj kohe, duhet të studioni gjuhën shqipe !"
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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#325

Post by Arbëri » Sat Dec 26, 2009 12:56 am

The Edinburgh Review: Or Critical Journal
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By Sydney Smith
Published 1929
Leonard Scott
Publication Co. [etc.]

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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#326

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sat Dec 26, 2009 9:16 am

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Ne sot po hedhim faren me emrin Bashkim,
Qe neser te korrim frutin me emrin Bashkim!

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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#327

Post by Arbëri » Sat Dec 26, 2009 4:48 pm

Folk literature of Epirus ( albania)
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The strong similarity betwin Pelasgians and albanians
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The Albanians are for Han the new Pelasgian. The ancient Epirotes, Macedonians and Illyrians... Like the first inhabitants of greece, they were pelasgian too.
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But in Greece the pelagian have adopted the hellenic language......;
In Macedonia and Illyria the aboriginal idiom contineu to egsist till the Bullgaric invasion firstly and the serbian invasion secondly.... In Albania (South Illyria and Epirus) whe have the immet betwin the Pelasgic elements

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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#328

Post by Arbëri » Sat Dec 26, 2009 4:57 pm

the language , the strory, tradition and costume proof that the Albanians are the direct discendents of the ancient Illyrians-Macedonians and ancient Epirotes.... the Albanians are the continuity of the ancient pelasgians, are the Neo-pellasgian
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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#329

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sat Dec 26, 2009 5:11 pm

ALBANIA, a country of European Turkey, stretching along the coast of the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas. It is difficult to define the exact limits of Albania, but the following account is, perhaps, nearly correct. It is bounded on the N. by the mountainous district of Monte Negro, (from which the river Moroka divides it,) and by the ridges which connect this district with the great central chain, anciently known by the name of Se ardus. The eastern boundary is uncertain, ft nearly coincides, however, with the line of the mountains running southward from lat. 42°, not far from the 21st meridian, east from Greenwich. From, lat. 40° it runs S.W. and meets the sea-coast a little to the northward of Preresa. Albania thus has Hcrtsek, or Turkish Dalmatia, with the territory of Monte Negro on the N.W. ; Bosnia and Servia on the N. ; Roumili or Roumelia on tho E. and S.E., and the Mediterranean Sea on the W., along which the coast runs for more than 200 miles. It will be seen to coincide with the southern parts of ancient Illyria, and the northern of Epirus. These are the limits of Albania properly so called, (»'. e. of the country in which the Albanian language is the vernacular tongue), and they exclude the districts of Joánnina, Arta, Kónitza, and Paleo Pogóneana ; but as these districts formed part of the territories of the late AH Pasha, in whose times this country has been most frequently visited, and as they will hardly come into any of the great territorial divisions of Turkey, they will bo spoken of as parts of Albania in this article. The eastern frontier must then be considered as advanced to the ridge Oi mountains, between the river Aspropotamos [sec Achelous] and the river of Arta; and southward to the gulf of Arta. Albania is a mountainous region ; ridges intersected by deep ravines cover the southern part of the country : the northern part is not so well known, having been less visited by travellers. The Acro-Ceraunian mountains, now called Khimara, after running north-west nearly parallel to the coast, form a bold headland just at the entrance of the Adriatic. The rugged rocks heaped one upon another, with their summits hidden in the clouds, and their base washed by a sea continually agitated, were regarded with apprehension by ancient navigators. The hills of Zagori running S.E. near the frontier of Albania and Macedonia, have flat summits spreading into extensive plains. A semicircular chain of lofty mountains, once known by the name of Scardus, and now called Gliubotin and Nissava Gora, incloses the basins of the Moroka and the Drin ; and a continuation of it runs southward, under the denominations of Tzumerka and Metzovo, uniting with the ancient Pindus ; but Pindus itself cannot be considered as within the limits of Albania, &c. The character of this range is hardly determined. It is doubtful if it forms a continuous chain, or an elevated ridge, crowned at different distances by lofty hills. The mountains of Khimára and Tzumerka are not less than 4000 feet above the level of the sea.

The rivers of Albania are not of any great size or importance. They flow from the eastern frontier into the Adriatic or the Mediterranean. The Moroka and Paskola unite their streams, and pass through the lake of Skutari (Skódre), or Zenta, into the Adriatic, assuming between the lake and the sea the name of Boyana. The general direction of the Moroka is S. ; of the Paskola S.W. ; and the distance from the source of the Moroka to the mouth of the Boyana, following the winding of the stream, and including the length of the lake Scutari, is more than 100 miles. Two streams, one, the black Drin, flowing in a northerly direction, or from L. Okhrida (ancient Lychnitis); the other, the white Drin, proceeding from the mountains on the frontier, and flowing S., meet and run westward into the Adriatic. The windings of this stream, measured from either source, render its course equal to about 150 or 160 miles, and make it the chief of the Albanian rivers. Farther to the south, we meet with the Skombi (ancient Genusus), the Beratina, or Krevasta (ancient Apsus), and the Boiussa or Voiussa, in whose modern appellation we may trace the ancient one of Aous or JEas This last-mentioned stream is about, 130 miles long; but these measurements, founded on the most recent maps, must, in the present state of our knowledge, be received with caution. The river Calamas, the ancient Thyamis, falls into the sea opposite Corfu ; and farther to the south we have the ancient Acheron, and the little river of Arta, which falls into the gulf of Arta on the north side. The principal lakes are those of Scutari or Zenta; of Okhrida, tho ancient L. of Lychnitis, of Joânnina, which has been confounded with the ancient Acherusia ; and of Butrinto. Of these, the second, according to the map published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, is the largest : that of Joânnina is given by Hobhouse as 10 or 12 miles long, and 3 broad.

The climate of Albania in the lower regions is, perhaps, about as warm as that of Italy, but droughts, and sudden and violent north winds, render it less agreeable. In the pari which lies south of lat. 40°, and which corresponds to the ancient Epirus, the climate i^ colder than in Greece. The spring does not set in before the middle of March : in Julj and August, the oppressive heat often drains the streams and rivers, and withers the plants and grass : September is the time of vintage ; and the rains of December are succeeded by frosts in January, which, however, seldom lasl long. The country is in general healthy. Tertians indeed prevail at Joânnina in spring and autumn, owing, probably to the vicinity of so large a sheet of stagnant water as the lake on which the town stands.

Of timber trees may be mentioned many species of oak among them the quercus cerris, with its broad indentec leaves, and large hairy-cupped acorn, affording timber ol good size and quality ; and the Vallonea oak (quercus œgi¡nps), the acorns of which are deeply set in a thick scaly cup used in dyeing, and supply an article of export from many parts of Turkey : the plane, the cypress, the ash, the cedar, the pine, and the larch may be added. The last three appear in tho mountains of Pindus, together with the chestnut ; tlie three which precede them are mingled on the sea-coast with the laurel and the lentisk. The wild vine and the elder arc also frequent on the mountains, and the woods and wastes nourish the Amphilochian peach, the Arta nut, and the quince. The cultivated fruits are the olive, which might bo rendered more productive by better care ; the vine, the pomegranate, the orange, the lemon, the mulberry, and the fig. The agricultural produce consists of barley, oats, maize, and other grains, tobacco, and cotton ; some portion of it is exported. The horses are spirited and active, but not large ; asses arc also used ; the oxen are ill-shaped and

stunted ; flocks of sheep and goats* are numerous. Спи siderable numbers of all these animals were, and probably continue to be sold into the Ionian islands. The dog» which Mr. Hobhouse saw on his road from АНл to Joânnina, were not unlike the true shepherd breed in England ; but were larger, (being nearly as big as mastiffs,) with sharper beads and more curled and bushy tails.

Fowls and eggs are abundant. Mr. Hobhouse, in one of bis journeys through the country, speaks of these two, with wine, being his constant meal. Among the wild beasts are the hear, the wolf, and the jackal. The lakes abound with water-fowl.

The inhabitants of Albania consist chiefly of Greeks and Albanians properly so called, with some few of other nations intermingled with them. We shall here confine ourselves to the Albanians, who have attracted considerable attention in modern times, from the celebrity of the late AH Pasha, and from the accounts of them given in the travels of Mr. (now Sir John) Hobhouse in 1809, and of Dr. Holland in 1812 and 1813, and in the Researches in Greece of Col. Leake, who resided in Albania a short time previous to the date of Mr. Hobhouse's journey. These writers, with M. Malte Brun, we have taken as our chief guides, and we refer to their works for more particular information. It may be mentioned, that the two men who have attained the greatest eminence under the Turkish sway in modern times have been Albanians ; viz., Bairacter, whose successful rebellion placed the present Sultan Mahmoud on his throne, and Mohammed Ali, Pasha of Egypt, who has nearly expelled him from it.

The lllyrians were probably the original stock from which the Albanians sprung. Ptolemy mentions a tribe ofAlbani, in the district with a town called Albanopolis ; but they appear to have been insignificant, and till the 12th century we lose sight of them. At that period we read of their town under the name of Albanon, Arbanon, or Elbanon, and it is said to have commanded the passes from the country around Lychnitis to the coast. From this people, the Byzantine Greeks gave to the inhabitants of these mountains, who spoke the samo dialect, the name of 'AX/3ai/^Tes (Albanetes), 'A\ßavoi (Albanoi), or 'Apßavmes (Arbanêtes) ; and to tho country that of 'AXßavt'a (Albania), 'АХ/Зоирш (Albanëtia), or 'Apßavrpia (Arbanêtia). Hence the European names of the country. The Albanian, however, calls himself Skipitar, and his native land Skiperi.

The hypothesis of the Albanians being descended from the lllyrians, cannot receive confirmation' from comparing it with the old Illyrian tongue, because we know nothing about the latter. ' Still the Albanian language, whatever may be its basis, has received accessions from the Greeks, the Romans, the Goths, the Sclavonians, the Franks, and the Italians ; with whom, at different times, the Albanians have been connected and intermingled.

Some writers have assigned to the Albanians a different origin ; supposing them to be the descendants of the Albani of Asia, who dwell between the Euxine and the Caspian seas, and who may (it is conjectured) have retired before the advance of the Sclavonian nations, that for some centuries followed the track marked out by the Huns, when they broke into Europe. Mr. Hobhouse, who adopts the above hypothesis, describes the modern Albanians as a mixture of Greeks, Romans, Goths, Vandals, Spaniards, Italians, Bulgarians, and Ottoman Turks, and supposes (though we believe it to he a mere supposition) the basis of their language to be the Sclavonian. Pouquevifle asserts the existence of a belief among the Albanians themselves that they are descended from the French ; and Meletius, a geographer of the last century, says they are descended from Celts who crossed ovtr from lapygia, now the Terra di Otranto, in the kingdom of Naples.

In the ninth and tenth centuries, Albania was included in the great Bulgarian kingdom, established south of the Danube, of which Lychnitis was the capital. In a subsequent period we find the Normans of Sicily and Tarento in permanent possession of some places on the coast. Dnrazzo was at once their depot and place of shelter. On the capture of Constantinople by the Franks [a.d. 1204], Michael Angélus, a bastard of the family of the Comneni. founded, what was called the Despotate (Дс<гтготато»», Lordship), a principality, comprehending the ancient /Ktolia.

• The milk of thfsp animals is made into сЫч'ы', a small quaatity of which is exported; and tlu-ir skins *cnc to hold wine (towliieh, howevci, they imfiurt u strong flavour) ; the Iksh of the kkli U cODüiiicFcd equal to lamb.

Acarnania and Epirus, including the towns of Joánuina (which became the capital), Arta, and Nepakto (or Naupactus). The despots were sometimes tributary to the emperors of Constantinople, at other times independent, or even hostile. The town of Albanon was, in 1257, subject to a governor sent by Theodore Lascaris II. emperor of Nice, (one of the sovereignties which sprung up on the above-mentioned capture of Constantinople ;) but as the Albanians preferred the sway of the despot, the governor retired. It was probably about this time that the Albanian name was extended to all those mountaineers of Illyricum and Epirus, who were united by community of language and manners ; and, as it should seem, they constituted a separate and independent community, which formed alliances at will with the Greek emperors, the Franks, or the despots of Epinis. Durazzo was in their hands, but Berat, in the heart of their country, was subject to Constantinople.

In the fourteenth century the power of the Albanians was so far increased as to lead them to attempt conquests distant from their mountains, but they could not retain their acquisitions. Some of their northern towns were taken by the Venetians ; and the nation ultimately bowed to the supremacy of the Turks. The valour of the celebrated George Kastrióte, or Castriot, called by the Turks Iskander (Seanderbeg), could only delay the subjugation of his countrymen. He died in 146G or 1467; and the Turks completed the conquest of Albania in 1478. The people, indeed, were never entirely subdued, nor does it appear probable that the sultan ever had more authority than at present, when he cannot appoint a governor who is not a native of the province : but the conquest, though imperfect, was the cause of considerable changes. In the days of Castriot the Albanians were Christians, and most of them continued to be so till the middle of the seventeenth century. They are now half Mohammedan, but their conversion is probably owing to policy, that they may attain to high dignities ; and their adherence to the usual practices of the Moslems is by no means of a rigid character. They intermam' with Christian women, and the children are divided between the opposite creeds of their father and mother, the boys going to the mosque, and the girls to church. Their laxity is a subject of ridicule to the more consistent Turks. The Albanians of the coast are mostly Christians, and some of them of the Latin church.

The Albanians are about five feet and a-half high, muscular and straight in their persons. Their activity and the tight girdles which they wear render them small round the loins : they have broad full chests, long necks, long oval faces, with prominent cheek bones, and flat raised foreheads, arched eyebrows, blue or hazel (rarely quite black), lively eyes, thin straight noses, thin but open nostrils, and small mouths, furnished with good teeth. Their complexions are white in youth, but get tinged or dusky in old age. They wear mustachios, but shave off the rest of the beard. Their features show a mind unsubdued byslavery, and then- stately walk and carriage may be denominated a strut. The women are tall, strong, and not illlooking ; but their appearance indicates wretchedness, ill usage, and hard work. They are not во early marriageable as the women in southern Greece, but they retain their looks longer, and give birth to children at a more advanced period of life.

The drsss of the better sort consists of an outer mantle, made of coarse woollen stuff, bordered and variously figured with red threads, which, falling loosely from the shoulders behind, reaches as low as the knees ; of two vests (the rich sometimes adding a third), the outer one, open, the inner, laced in the middle and richly figured ; of a broad sash or belt, with one or two pistols, the handles of which are often long, and curiously wrought witu silver ; of a coarse cotton shirt, the lower part descending from beneath the belt like a highland kilt, with drawers of the same materials ; and of variously coloured stockings, or high socks, and sandals. They wear also a small red skull-cap, and metal greaves or coverings for the knees and ancles. The most remarkable part of an Albanian's dress, is the capote or cloak, a coarse shaggy garment, either of a gray or white wool, or black horse haii, with open sleeves, and a square flap or cape behind, which serves sometimes for a hood. The richer Albanians often add to their dress a shawl tied on the head like a turban.

The dress of the common people is usually composed of mstcrials which once were white; but the clothes of an

Albanian, owing to his scanty wordiobe (which rarely con tains more than two shirts), and to his habit of sleeping dressed on the ground, present avery unsavoury appearance. They are, in fact, very filthy in their persons, and infested with vermin, which they brush from their clothes without s'name for themselves or consideration for others. The poor seldom wear their sandals.

The Albanians are fond of ornaments. They wear silver chains round the neck with amulets, silver snuff-boxes, or watches, with shagreen cases, at the end. Of one ornament in particular they are very proud and careful. It is a copper, or sometimes a silver pencase, a quarter of an inch thick, (some say as much as an inch and a half,) and ten or eleven inches long, with an inkstand at one end. This they often wear in their girdles, adorned with a silver chain, even when unable to use it. The poor all carry at least one pistol in their girdles ; and are especially proud if they can have the handle of silver, being comparatively careless about the barrel or the lock.

The dress of the women is fantastical, but they are more cleanly than the men. The women at Cesarades, a town which Mr. Hobhouse passed through, were cliieHy clothed in red cotton, but he never observed this colour elsewhere. Their heads were wrapped in a shawl, so arranged as to look like a helmet and crest, with clasps under the ears. At Ereeneed, a place not far from that last mentioned, the garments of the women were of white woollen, and the younger ones wore a kind of skull-cap composed of silver coins. Their huir also, which fell down in long braids, was strung with money, so that the young girls thus carry their portions (as they collect them) on their heads.

The food of the Albanians consists of wheaten or barley bread, but principally of cakes of boiled or roasted maize ; of goats -milk cheese, rice, butter, eggs, dried fish, and vegetables. The proportion of animal food is but small. On holidays they kill sheep, or kids, or fowls. Their diet is usually spare ; but this arises from parsimoniousness, as they will eat voraciously when they can do it at the cost of others. They all drink wine, as well as rackee, a spirit distilled from grape husks and barley, and not unlike whiskey. They drink also abundance of cold water, (and that when they arc hot, without finding any inconvenience,) some coffee, the Italian rossoglios, the liqueurs of Corfu and Ccphalonia, and a little milk. The wine, made in quantities and kept in casks in Joánnina and other large towns, is mixed with fine resin, lime, and water. The resin is to impart strength, but is counterbalanced by the water ; the lime is intended to refine the liauor. This process, however, imparts a harsh flavour.

Their habitations are for the most part very neat. The cottages have seldom more than one floar and that of mud, which is regularly swept, and is quite dry. The rooms are commonly two, one of which is appropriated to the store of maize in the stalk, and of grapes which are sprinkled with salt. The fire is made on the floor, and as they have only a hole to serve as a chimney, it is not surprising that their apartments are sometimes smoky. Their furniture is very simple. A large circular tray of thin iron or tin, is used for eating on, and is kept well scoured and very bright. They have also a pan to mix meal in, a wooden bowl or two, sonic horn spoons, jars for oil and wine, and a small copper coffee jug. A brass lamp, three or four white rush mats, and a block of wood about a foot high, serving as a stand for the eating tray,—all which articles, as well as those previously mentioned, are kept in a deal cupboard or wooden chest,—complete the list of an Albanian's domestic utensils.

Their houses are detached with a garden to each. The house in which Mr. Hobhouse lodged, at Ereeneed, had belonging to it a tobacco patch, a vineyard, and a fruit and vegetable garden, all surrounded by a stone wall. The house was in an inner yard, so walled as to form a sort of fortification, with holes in the wall, placed at regular distances, and said to be intended for guns.

Their villages have a green with a large tree for holiday sports. On this green is the circular paved threshing-floor, where the corn is trodden out by horses, who are fastened by a cord to the post in the centre of the floor, and driven round, sometimes to the number of eight or nine abreast.

A distinguishing feature in the character of the Albanians is then- nationality. Their answer, when asked what they are, is not, as in other places, ' I am a Mohammedan,' or ' I am a Christian,' but ' I am an Albanian.' In fact, their independence and love of country have almost entirely removed that distinction between the professors of the two religions which prevails so much in other parts of the Turkish empire. The laxity of and Mohammedan portion of this singular people has been already noticed. Their nationality accompanies them when they leave their native land. In foreign parts they will go out of their way to visit a countryman, although he may be personally a stranger to them.

They are proud of their prowess ; and, indeed, they are a nation of warriors, being all capable of using the sword or the long gun. The latter (and, indeed, the sabre too) is to be found in almost every cottage. The imperfec.tion, however, of its make (for the locks are usually rude, and the barrels thin and badly manufact ired), and the coarseness of the powder, render it far from an efficient weapon, and prevent the Albanian from acquiring much skill as a marksman. As all carry arms, it is difficult to distinguish the peasant from the soldier.

Although the poorer classes among the Albanians will not steal, or, at any rate, are less addicted to thell than the same classes among other people, yet open robbery, upon a large scale, is not considered disgraceful. Men will commonly, in reference to a past event, speak of it as occurring when they were robbers. It is impossible to avoid observing the strong points of comparison between the habits of the encient Greeks, among whom robbery and piracy on a large scale were honourable professions, and those of the inhabitants of modern Greece, and other parts of European Turkey. Early in the summer, bandits leave the towns and villages in which they have passed the winter, and, forming large bands of two, five, or seven hundred, or even a thousand men, retire to the tops of some mountains—those of Metzovo, for instance—and there live in caves or in the open air ; making Greece, however, and not Albania, the scene of their depredations. The shepherds are often in league with them, and their flocks supply these predatory bands with meat; they procure bread from the peasantry. A gentle tap at the cottage door is heard in the stillness of the m¿ht, and the well-known word ' Psomê ' (bread), informs the inmate of the nature of an application with which he immediately complies. These robbers are very cautious in making their attacks. They lie quietly in wait, and suffer their prey to get quite into the midst of them. If the party to be attacked is strong, they fire without rising from their covert until either they arc repelled, or have obliged their victims to cry quarter. The prisoners are gagged, bound, and plundered ; and, if wealthy, detained until they are ransomed. If there is no expectation of resistance, the robbers start up from their place of ambush without firing. Resistance is frequently,however, made with success: the assailed getting behind stones and returning the fire of their opponents,—who are very slow, unless they have great advantage in number, in attacking with the sabre.

The population of Albania has always been of a warlike character. They were the soldiers of Pyrrhus, one of the most formidable opponents whom the Romans encountered; and under Scanderbeg they arrested for awhile the tide of Turkish conquest. At present, under the denomination of Arnauts, they rank among the flower of the Ottoman army, and are found as mercenaries in all parts of Turkey and in the Barbary States. They take the field without baggago or tents, and are far more active than the generality of the Turkish soldiery. Abstemious in their habits, a ration of one or two pounds of wheat or maize flour, with a few black olives or salted pilchard«, suffices for their wants. While daylight continues, they are engaged in wrestling or other warlike exercises. If wounded, they leave their corps and go home to get cured, after which they return to the fleld. Many of them know how to set a bone in their rude> manner ; and they will even attempt some of the more delicate operations of surgery. They follow the profession of arms till they become decrepit. Besides the annual resort of the robbers to the mountains already mentioned, the migrations of some of the shepherds require notice. These, with their flocks, their horses, their moveable houses, their goods, their wives and children, remove at the commencement of summer to the mountains, and return when the approach of winter renders the milder climate of the plains more desirable.

Their agricultural skill is not great. Their plough is of simple construction ; and in time of harvest they reap their corn, though with little skill, and they never mow it. The business of sowing and reaping is left to the women and to the aged. The young men fell timber or dress the riñes :

nor are they averse to the occupation of shepherds, u 4 enables them to indulge that idleness to which, when rof engaged in war, they are so prone. Their indolence, howo ever, does not give them that grave and torpid air which distinguishes the Tuiks.

They look upon the female sex as cattle, make them labour, and beat them : yet all marry who can ; marriage being in itself a sign of wealth. Mr. Hobhouse witn'essed a nuptial procession at Joannina, during his abode in that city. The marriage had taken place in the morning, and the bride had returned to her own apartments, in the harem of AU Pasha, where, while unmarried, she had been a slave. In the evening, the bridegroom, a Christian Albanian, an officer in Ali's service, went to fetch her, being accompanied by a party of men, some with fiddles and others with lanterns of coloured paper. On the return, the bridegroom with his party went first; then came six young girls, splendidlydressed, two of them carrying infante. After these followed a woman, in still richer attire, bearing a small red trunk, in which was the portion given by Ali to the bride, as having been attached to the harem. The bride herself came nexti bearing, in dress and in rigidity of muscle, a closer resemblance to the wax figure of Queen Elizabeth, in Westminster Abbey, than to anything else. Her face was painted, and her high cap studded with pieces of gold money.

Most of the Albanians speak Greek, which is also the common written language in use among them, for their own vernacular tongue is unwritten. Very few of them, even though Mohammedans, can speak Turkish. The Greeks of Joannina, of the better sort, are well instructed in the manners and languages of Christendom ; and that town once finished a residence to travellers both safe and agreeable. Л( the present moment the town is in a most ruinous condition, having suffered a great deal at the time of AU'» assassination in 1820, and having been plundered five times since by the Albanians. (Sketches in Greece, &c. London, 1833.)

Dancing is one' of their most common anjusements. The musical instrument in general use among them is a kind of guitar, with three strings, a long neck, and a small round base. They strike the chords, not with the hand, but with a piece'of quill, half an inch long. Its sound, as may be supposed, is monotonous. It is just sufficient asan accompaniment to their songs and to mark time.

A distinction of character may be observed between the Albanians of different districts. In the northern part of the country, which is better adapted for cavalry, the national character is alloyed by the dulness of the Bulgarian. It is in the narrow vales and on the barren mountains of the south that we must look for that character in its full development. There the hardy natives, ignorant of horsemanship, and constituting an irregular infantry of the hardiest and most active character, are constantly seeking to be engaged in war ; and, when their own feuds do not open to them a fleld, they seek employment as mercenaries with the Pasha* of other provinces. They may be compared, in point of character, with the independent mountaineers of Greece, whom they excel in evenness of conduct, in prudence, and in faithfulness to employers ; while they surpass them, also, in avidity, selfishness, and avarice. The same activity, keenness, and enterprise, and the same hardy, patient, laborious habits, mark both races.

The Albanians have few arts or manufactures. A considerable number of capotes are exported annually; and they produce some embroidery on velvet, stuff! and cloth, for which the country enjoys a better reputation than any other part of European Turkey ; but this is the work of the Greeks of Joannina, who are an industrious people, rather than of the Albanians. The physicians in large towns are Greeks, but the surgeons are commonly Albanians: their practice is, however, of a very inartificial and somewhat violent character.

The country is under the government of the different Turkish Pashas in whose territories it lies,— as those of Joannina, Scutari, Okhrida, Avlona, and Delvino. But in a country of such character, and inhabited by such a people, the power of the Pashas, unless wielded by a hand like that of Ali, may be regarded as very small. The local authorities are constituted very differently in different places. Here a district or town is under the control of one man, bearing the Turkish title of Bolu Bashe, or the Greek title of Capitán, or else some designation borrowed from Europe : here an Aga or Bey becomes a petty chieftain of \e villagers ; while in other places, as in the town of Ar-vro-Castro, there are no local authorities. (See Hob

ouse's Travels.) How far this state of things has been

fleeted by the overthrow of AH Pacha, we have not at pre

ent any means of learning. The authority quoted in the

^receding page leads us to suppose that Albania in in a

aiost disorderly condition.

The population of ft country such as Albania cannot be estimated with any tolerable accuracy. Upper Albania, beginning either at Delrinaki or Tepellene, is generallymore populous than the districts to the south. The population of Ali's dominions was estimated, by Dr. Holland, at 2,000,000 ; but these dominions stretched far beyond Albania, regarded even in the wide extent in which we hare been speaking of it. We do not see how any calculation worth trusting can be made.

The trade consists mainly in the exchange of natural productions for the manufactures of nations more refined. Oil, wool, wheat, maize, and tobacco, are sent to the ports of the kingdom of Naples, or to the Ionian Isles and Malta ; and sheep, goats, cattle, and horses, to the Ionian Islands. Cotton-wool and timber are exported from the Gulf of Arta; but the cotton is brought chietly from Thcssaly, and the timber from ancient Acarnania, on the south sido of the Gulf. The manufactured goods which they export are capotes ; gun and pistol stocks, mounted in chased silver, plain and gilt ; and embroidered velvets, stall's, and cloths. They import some coffee and sugar from Trieste ; knives, sword-blades, gun-barrels, glass, and paper from Venire; and gold and silver thread, for embroidery, from Vienna. French and German cloth, of coarse, thin texture, ill dyed, and altogether inferior to the worst English cloth, is sent from Leipsic, probably through the medium of Greek houses at Trieste. Caps are brought in from Trieste, Leghorn, and Genoa ; and various articles from the Ionian Isles and Malta, which being landed at the ports of Prevesa, Sallora, Avlóna, and Durazzo, are conveyed on horseback to the great annual fair of Joánnina. (See Hobhouse's and Holland's Travel»; since which time things may have changed.) Linen, velvet, gunpowder, fire-arms, and iron wares, are also imported. The want of ready means of communication is a great impediment to traffic. Goods are conveyed by pack-horses ; four or five of which are attached to each other by cords, and guided by one man. The vigorous government of Ali, by the suppression of robbers and the construction of road», afforded facilities for internal traffic which did not previously exist.

The revenues of the late Ali Pasha arose from a land-tax, irregular in iU assessment, but averaging probably ten per cent of the produce ; an arbitrary tax on cities and towns, depending on the necessities and will of the Vizier ; duties on export« and imports ; the assumption of a right to all property when there are no male heirs, founded on the general custom of the Turkish empire ; a tax on decisions upon litigated property, equal to about ten per cent, of the value of the property ; requisitions, on particular places, to aid in buildings or other works carried on by the government : and a partial monopoly of the corn trade. The actual contribution to the impenal treasury at Constantinople is not known. Ali hod immense private revenues, and also considerable boards of treasure.

The Albanians, as might he expected from their imperfect civilization and their peculiar habits, are divided into tribe«, each'having its proper designation, and distinguished in some particulars from the adjacent tribes. The most northern, and, if we may judge from the extent of country occupied by it, the largest tribe is that of the Ngége, Guegttes, or Red Albanians, who inhabit the country watered by the branches of the Drin. The Mirdites, from whom Scanderbeg arose, and who owe to their priests a degree of civilization which distinguishes them favourably from their neighbours, appear to be a subdivision of these. Southward from the NgÄge, are the Tóske. The Liiipe, notorious ft» poverty, dirt, and pilfering ; and the Tzami, succeed these as we advance towards the south ; and other tribes, either detached from the more important ones, or else entirely unconnected with them, occupy small portions of the country. (See Leake.) Among these, the people of the district of Khimara may be noticed for their indulgence of revenge, which they regard as a sacred duty, and which converts their different villages or towns into hostile stations. Some Bulgarian, and some Wallachian colonies may be found scattered «long the eastern frontier of Albania. This division by tribes is purely Albanian, and was probably in use before the Turkish conquest Upon that event, several of the chief towns, as Délvino, Berat, El Basan, Avlóna, Skódre, and others, became the seats of Turkisn provincial governments.

Some notice of the chief towns of Albania will be found in the articles under their respective names. No one of them can be designaUj as the capital ; for the country is not under the government of one Pasha. Joánnina, which is indeed beyond the boundaries of Albania strictly so called, is the most important: and after it may be mentioned Skódre, Okhrida, Berät, Durazzo (the ancient l)yracchium), Délvino, Argyro Castro, Avlóna, Prevesa, and Arta. Parga was, till delivered up to the Turks, a town of considerable size, having 8000 inhabitants. These were Christians of the Greek and Latin churches. The people of Antivari and Dolcigno are chietly Mohammedans. Their situation on the coast leads them to become sailors, and they are the only Albanians who have any acquaintance with shipping. They enter into the service of the Barbery States, or follow piracy at home. This last is the case, at least, with the people of Dolcigno, which has a town with 6000 inhabitants.

Albanian colonies are to be found in different part« of Turkey and Greece, especially in the ancient Attica, Bœotia, Argolis, Elis, and Laconia; but these are labourers. The warlike character of the nation is retained only by those who remain at home ; and in the Morea the language is nearly lost, while in the Attic villages it is retained ; these being probably colonies of later date. The people of Hydra are descended from Albanian colonists, but are scarcely distinguishable from their neighbours. But the most remarkable colony is in Calabria, where the Albanians settled upon the Kastrioti receiving a Neapolitan dukedom. Their descendants, when Mr. Swinburne travelled in 1780, amounted to 100,000, and retained the Albanian dress. The women could only speak Albanian. The men could, however, speak the Calabrese also ; and their original language seemed to be gradually yielding to that of their adopted country. There are also Albanian colonies in the Abruzzi. [See Abkucii.]

Page 255 - 259
Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Volume 1
By Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
1833
Ne sot po hedhim faren me emrin Bashkim,
Qe neser te korrim frutin me emrin Bashkim!

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Re: EPIRI - PERKATESIA E TIJ SHQIPTARE

#330

Post by Mallakastrioti » Sun Dec 27, 2009 2:36 pm

Dizionario italiano-latino-illirico a cui si premettono alcune ..., Volumi 1-2‎
Ardelio Della Bella - 1785



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